Management Exam

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  • Created by: MOmar
  • Created on: 18-05-15 09:24
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  • Challenges facing the sector
    • Austerity
      • Sector cuts Who will be effected ?
        • Private Organisation
          • Such as dentists, care homes BUPA these will benefit from NHS outsourcing as their aim is to make profits
        • Public
          • Closure or reduction of care service in some area for instance youth centres, surgeries
        • Voluntary Organisation
          • This can lead to more strain on voluntary organisation to provide support to those in need.
            • Shelter will have to support more young people as the government proposes to ban housing benefits for U25.
            • DWP Sanctions deemed unfair and systematically targets the vulnerable
              • Food Bank more branches have been opened to support local comminunties especially families.
        • People
          • Vulnerable Adults
            • Staff are poorly trained which can lead to abuse such as the Winter Bourne Scandal
            • A reduction in holistic care which means staff are allocated less time with clients
          • Young People
            • Often marginalized in society reducing services can lead to
              • Homelessness for instance local authorities are restricting the amount of housing benefit rewarded to individuals
              • Childhood poverty is linked with lower educational attainment, higher unemployment and low earnings in adulthood.
          • Elderly
            • Reduction in hours spend with clients for instance 2 hours per visit
      • NHS reforms
        •  Dilnot Commission published recommendations to reform the way individuals pay for their care and how government could provide better support
          • A cap of £35,000 on an older person’s lifetime contribution to their ‘eligible care needs’
        • The NHS in England employs nearly 1.2 million full-time equivalent staff
        • Big society
          • From state power to people power
          • Social action remains concentrated among the well-off, in the wealthiest places
      • Austerity is defined as “enforced or extreme economy'
        • Klein's Shock Doctrine  suggest  “free market” policies have come to dominate the world-- through the exploitation of disaster-shocked people and countries
          • The Falkland War 1982 which then led to Thatchers' Policies
        • 22%OF THE UK POPULATION LIVE IN POVERTY. THAT'S 13.4 MILLION PEOPLE.
        • Implications
          • Risks : Workforce
            • Exploitation/abuse by introducing longer working hours or increase in responsiblities
            • Their rights for instance pensions and this can lead to industrial actions by  trade unions
            • Discrimination
            • Stress and Burnout
          • Tighter public purse à reduction in funding
            • Austerity measures à higher unemployment rates, larger pools, suitability of recruits
            • Immigration cap means its difficult to access 'skilled' migrant' workers
              • Interface between social care sectors and other sectors, especially health
          • Risks : Clients
            • Quality of Care decreases
              • Keogg Report 2013
    • Managing Power
      • Abuse of Power
        • Stanley Prison Experiment conducted by Dr Zimbago
        • Policies and Legal Framework
          • The Care Act 2014
            • The Care Act 2014 sets out a clear legal framework for how local authorities and other parts of the system should protect adults at risk of abuse or neglect.
          • The Equality Act 2010
      • Whistle-blowing
        • * Edward Snowden NSA whistleblower*Bradley Manning        Julian Assange Wikileaks whistle blower
      • French & Raven (1959)
        • Referent – This is the result of a person's perceived attractiveness, worthiness, and right to respect from others.
        • Reward – This results from one person's ability to compensate another for compliance.
        • Legitimate – This comes from the belief that a person has the formal right to make demands, and to expect compliance and obedience from others.
        • Coercive – This comes from the belief that a person can punish others for noncompliance.
        • Expert – This is based on a person's superior skill and knowledge
      • Theories on management
        • Classical
          • Fayol
            • Fayol was the first person to actually give a definition of management which is generally familiar today namely 'forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control'.
            • Fayol also gave much of the basic terminology and concepts, which would be elaborated upon by future researchers, such as division of labour, scalar chain, unity of command and centralization
            • Fayol does mention the issues relating to the sensitivity of a patients needs, such as initiative and 'esprit de corps', he saw them as issues in the context of rational organisational structure and not in terms of adapting structures and changing people's behaviour to achieve the best fit between the organisation and its customers.
            • Many of these principles have been absorbed into modern day organisations, but they were not designed to cope with conditions of rapid change and issues of employee participation in the decision making process of organisations, such as are current today in the early 21st century
          • Taylor
            • Improvements in working methods, plant design, etcimproving work methods brought enormous increases in productivity
            • Rights of the workers where completely ignorered
              • Introduced scientific management this was a rigid system where every task became discrete and specialized. It is fair to suggest that this is unlikely to be of value to the NHS with the Modernisation agenda suggesting that we should have a flexible workforce.
            • Works excellent in manufacturing products however the same could not be applied to supporting people
            • Introduced scientific management this was a rigid system where every task became discrete and specialized. It is fair to suggest that this is unlikely to be of value to the NHS with the Modernisation agenda suggesting that we should have a flexible workforce.
          • Webber
            • Tendency for organisations to become procedure dominated rather than goal dominated.Tendency for heavily formalised organisational roles to suppress initiative and flexibility of the job holders.
        • Modern
          • Mcgregor Theory X and Theory Y
            • Identifies two main types of individual for managers to consider and how to motivate.
              • Theory Y
              • Theory X
                • According to Mcgregor this employee is lazy tend to avoid responsibilities therefore needs to be controlled or coercion.
            • Only presents two extremes of managerial behaviour
          • Maslow
            • Managers can/should consider the needs and aspirations of individual subordinates.
            • Empirical research over the years has not tended to support this theoretical model
            • Hierarchy of Needs means people work better
          • Herzberg
            • Motivators are factors giving rise to satisfaction
              • Herzberg's work led to a practical way to improve motivation, which had, up to that point, been dominated by Taylorism (salary, wages). In particular ' job enrichment' programs mushroomed. The aim of these was to design work and work structures to contain the optimum number of motivators.
                • Critics argue about the validity of his definition of 'job satisfaction
            • Hygiene factors are factors giving rise to dissatisfaction
          • Mayo
            • Individuals cannot be treated in isolation, but function with group members
            • Highlighted need for supervisors to be sensitive and cater for social needs of workers within the group
            • Hard to implement in practice
    • Managing Stress
      • How can a manager reduce stress ?
        • Improving working conditions for instance Google and Facebook
        • Stress audits and risk assessments
        • Appraisals and Supervision
        • Team building exercise and rewards
        • Training staff and managers
      • Health and Safety Act 1974
        • believes good management practices can help reduce work-related stress
      • Stress symptoms are not easy to detect
        • Stigma attached to stress
          • Taking to many days off
          • Considered a myth
      • Causes of stress in this sector
        • Longer working hours
        • Nature of work can be mentally exhausting
        • Commitment to clients
        • Roles and responsibility especially when working with the vulnerable

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