Management strategies - Global water cycle

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  • Management Strategies: Global water cycle
    • Forestry
      • Multilateral organisations recognise importance of forests in water cycle
        • United Nations (UN)
          • UN's Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
          • Fund projects to protect forests
            • World Bank (WB)
              • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)
        • World Bank (WB)
          • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)
        • Provide financial incentives = protect + restore forest
          • Carbon offsets (Cap and Trade)
          • Direct funding
        • Example: Brazil
          • Multilateral organisation support
            • UN
            • World Bank
            • World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
            • German Development Bank
          • The Amazon Regional Protected Areas (ARPA) programme
            • covers 10% of Amazon Basin
            • Benefits of programme =
              • Stabilising water cycle
              • Offset 430 million tonnnes C/year
              • Support indigenous communities
              • Promote ecotourism
              • Protects biodiversity
    • Water Allocations
      • Countries with water scarcity = governments have to allocate water
        • Agriculture is the biggest consumer
          • 70% of water withdrawals globally
          • 90% of consumption globally
          • Wastage of water
            • Evapouration
            • Inefficient water management
              • Over-irrigating crops
        • Improving management strategies
          • = minimising water loss from run-off
            • Terracing
            • Contour ploughing
            • Planting vegetation
        • Better management
          • Better water harvesting
            • storage in ponds
            • Storage in reserviors
          • Recovering and recycling of water waste
    • Drainage basin planning
      • Water management is most effective at basin scale
        • Can use a holistic approach
          • = to accommodate conflicting demands of different water users
      • Factors impact water quality
        • Agriculture
        • Industry
        • Domestic use
        • Wildlife
        • Recreation and lesiure
      • Aims of drainage basin planning
        • Run-off
          • Afforestation projects
          • Reduce artificial drainage
          • Permeable surfaces in urban areas
        • Surface storage
          • Restoring wetlands
        • Groundwater storage
          • Limiting abstraction of water
          • Limiting artificial recharge
      • Example = England and Wales
        • EU's Water Directive Framework
          • 10 river basins identified
          • Identify major catchments by districts
            • Each district has its own River Basin Management Plan
              • Joined by DEFRA (Departement for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)
              • Sets targets on
                • Water quality
                • Abstraction rates
                • Groundwater levels

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