Management strategies - global carbon cycle

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  • Management strategies: global carbon cycle
    • Wetland restoration
      • Wetland loss =
        • Loss of biodiversity and habitat
        • Loss of carbon sink
          • Large amount of carbon dioxide transferred to atmosphere
      • Types of wetland
        • Salt marshes
        • Floodplain
        • Freshwater marshes
      • Wetlands =   6-9% of land surface
      • Wetlands = 35% terrestrial carbon store
        • Store = 3.25 tonnes C/ha/year
      • Factors affecting wetlands
        • Population growth
        • Economic development
        • Urbanisation
      • Restoration project - Canada Praires
        • 1900s - 70% loss of wetlands
        • 112,000 ha planned for restoration
          • = 364,000 tonnes C/year
      • Management =
        • International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar)
        • European Union Habitats Directive
        • UK = 400 ha of grade 1 farmland being converted back to farmland
          • Help government meet target of 500 ha of wetland by 2020
        • Raising water tables = creating waterlogged conditions
          • Wetlands on floodplains = reconnected to rivers allowing flooding
          • Wetlands in coastal areas = breaching sea defences
          • Diverting and blocking drainage
    • Afforestation
      • Planting trees in deforested areas.
        • Trees = carbon sink.
        • Reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
          • Long term solution
            • Reduce climate change
        • Reducing flood risk
        • Reduce soil eorsion
        • Increases biodiversity
      • Management
        • UN's Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
          • Incentives developing countries to conserve their rainforests
            • Places monetary value on forest conservation
        • Protection from loggers, farmers, miners
          • Inexpensive way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions
      • (EG) Afforestation project - China
        • Government-sponsored
        • Began in 1978
        • Aims to afforest 400,000km2 by 2050
        • 2000-2009 = 30,000km2 were successfully planted
          • Non-native, fast growing species - eg: Birch
        • Aims of project:
          • Prevent desertification
          • Prevent land degredation
    • Agricultural practices
      • Unsustainable agricultural practices
        • Overgrazing
        • Over cultivation
        • Intensification
        • Lead to soil erosion
        • Leads to carbon dioxide release
      • Intensive livestock farming
        • 100 million tonnes/year of methane
      • Padi/rice fields
        • Uncontrolled decomposition of manure = CH4 emissions
      • Reducing emissions in agriculture
        • Land and crop management
          • Zero tillage
            • Growing crops without ploughing
              • conserves organic content + reduces erosion
          • Polyculture
            • Growing annual crops around trees
              • Protects soils
          • Crop residues
            • Leaving crop residues on fields after harvest
              • Ground cover + soil erosion protection
          • Machinery
            • Avoiding heavy machinery
              • Compact and erodes soils
          • Farming methods
            • Contour ploughing and terracing
              • Reduce run-off + erosion
          • Genetic modification
            • New plant strains
              • Grow in drier conditions = less CH4 produced
        • Livestock management
          • Improving livestock feed
            • Less methane production
        • Manure management
          • Storing manure for methane production - renewable energy
    • International Agreements
      • Kyoto Protocol - 1997
        • Countries legally bound to carbon dioxide production reductions.
          • Some countries were exempt - eg; China, India
          • Some countries didn't ratify - eg: USA, Australia
        • Expired in 2012
      • The Paris Agreement
        • Paris Climate Convention in 2015
          • Starts in 2020
        • Aims
          • Reduce global CO2 below 60% of 2010 emissions by 2050
          • Keep global warming below 2'c
        • Issues with agreement
          • Countries set own targets
          • Not legally binding
          • Timetable not yet agreed
        • Developed countries provide developing countries with technologies + funds to meet targets
          • Developing countries argue reductions are responsibility of developed countries
            • Some countries are still industralising
            • Europe and North America own industrialisation cause modern global warming
    • Cap and Trade
      • International management strategy
        • Market-based approach to limit CO2 emission
      • Businesses are allocated annual quota - 'carbon credits'
        • Carbon credits can be traded
        • Businesses that exceed their quota must purchase additional credits
      • 'Carbon offsets' = credits for conservation schemes
        • Carbon offsets compensate for excessive emissions elsewhere
        • Afforestation
        • Wetland restoration

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