- Major players in the world of energy
- Consumers - Transport, industry, and domestic users. may passively fix energy prices.
- Governments - they can decide where they source energy and are the deciders of their own national energy security.
- Transnational Corporations (TNC's) - most are involved in exploring, extras ting, transporting, refining and producing petro-chemicals.
- Gazprom, ExxonMobil, PetroChina and Royal Dutch Shell. (mostly state-owned and government-run).
- Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) - twelve member countries of whom own around 2/3rds of the worlds oil reserves. OPEC therefore controls amounts of oil and gas entering global markets and therefore the prices.
- Some may say that OPEC hold back on productions to drive up prices and profit for themselves.
- Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
- Energy companies - these convert primary energy (oil, gas, water and nuclear) into electricity and distribute it. they set consumer prices and tariffs.