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  • Created by: clararose
  • Created on: 03-12-15 12:39
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  • Main Theories
    • Functionalism
      • Summary of theory
        • Structuralist theory. Sees the individual as less important than the social structure. Society creates the individual.
        • The individual is seen as the product of society. Society is complex system, specialised division of labour, preparation of young people.
      • Main Theorists
        • Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) Importance of social process and role of social insitutations. Norms and values become moral codes
        • Emile Burkhiem- social identity (feeling of belonging to a larger community and a shared identity)
      • Criticisms
        • Over emphasise consensus and order fails to explain social conflict.
        • Ignored freedom of choice
        • Socialisation is viewed as a positive process that never fails.
        • Ignore that power is not equally distributed.
    • Interactionsim
      • Summary of theory
        • Bottom up approach take person, then answer questions. Means to everything we put into what we think to what is going on around us, Not hitting back because you know it is bad and wrong,
        • Labelling to selfull fill-- disabled, prison cell- gain this label. Labelling at school, naughty children acting bad and negative attitude from teacher.  Give things there name because of an associate (chair)
      • Main Theorists
        • Hargreaves (97) Secondary schools, teachers made initial judgement about students based on ability and behaviour.
        • Howard Becker (63) Self is affected by the process of  labelling.
      • Criticisms
        • Fail to give a big picture of society as a whole
        • Falls to give a picture of larger patterns and trends within society.
        • Interactionsistts fail to consider infulences on peoples behaviours and attitudes ( talk about educating system affecting behaviour and behaviour effecting education system.)
    • Postmodernism
      • Summary of theory
        • A variety of ideas about society that dont always agree with each other, Focus on small part of society and understand from variety of viewpoints,
        • They dont believe sociology can provide theories about social world that are superior to common sense of opinion.
        • Modernist era associated with more from religious and traditional ways of thinking to scientific- say that.. ages of mass production given way to age of knowledge production (mass media and computers)
      • Main Theorists
        • Lyotard (84) suggest we abandon the meta narratives (grand theories)
      • Criticisms
        • undermines the view that through sociology and science we can understand the world around us in logical traditional manner,
        • Social structures do still matter as identities are not freely chosen.
        • There are still things that women cant do
        • The choices of the poorest members of society may be limited due to lack of resources,
    • Marxism
      • Summary of theory
        • the bosses (bourgeoisie) the workers (proletariat) ruling class benefit. Capitalism society- working class being employed by ruling class for wage to make products,
        • Owned and controlled by ruling class (employ the subject class). Ideology- way people are told to thin by those in power. Infrastructure- economy of society ( roads, shops, businesses, hospitals)
        • Class conflict, working class are suffering from false class conciousness (exploited as workers and consumers). Brain washed by TV forced to think we need things we dont.
      • Main Theorists
        • Karlmarx (1818-1833)
      • Criticisms
        • Over emphasising conflict when there must be harmony and shared values for social order to be possible.
        • It seen as economically deterministic, everything revolves around money
        • Classic marxism has ignored the role of women in society,
        • What revolution- Russia and china have actually become capitalists and turned backs on communism.
        • Society doesn't always operate in the interests of the ruling class.


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