Dement and Kleitman

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 30-03-14 21:47
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  • Dement and Kleitman
    • Aim
      • To investigate the relationship between REM sleep and dreaming
      • H1: people will be more likely to report dreams if woken during REM than NREM
      • H2: people can accurately estimate the time spent deaming
      • H3: Direction of eye movement during REM  sleep is related to dream content
    • Method and Participants
      • 9 adults, 7 male 2 female
        • 5 studied intensively, woken several times a night over 6-17 nights
        • 4 studied non intensively only 1-2 nights
        • Studied over a total of 61 nights
      • EEG measured brain wave activity, EOG measured eye movement
      • Observation and participants self reports of dream length and content
      • Lab experiment using IMD for intensive/non intensive and repeated measures for conditions to test each hypothesis
    • Procedure
      • Overall
        • Avoid caffeine and alcohol but eat normally
        • Report to sleep lab before normal bedtime
        • Slept in quiet dark room
        • Electrodes attached to scalp and around eyes
        • Woken by doorbell and spoke into tape recorder
          • asked what they had been dreaming and estimate the duraton
      • H1
        • 5 intensively studied woken 1 of four ways
          • 2 according to a random numbers table to remove pattern
          • 1 at whim of the experimenter
          • 1 in 3 periods of REM and 3 non REM sleep
          • 1 woken randomly having told they would only be woken in REM sleep
        • 4 non intensively studied woken randomly
        • Asked if they had been dreaming
      • H2
        • Woken either 5 or 15 minutes into REM sleep and asked to estimate length by choosing between 5 or 15 mins
        • Asked to relate dream content lenght of narrative correlated to duration of REM
      • H3
        • Partcipants asked to related dream content 1 minute after eye movement was observed
          • Horizontal
          • Vertical
          • Horizontal and vertica;
          • Littlle or no eye movement
    • Results
      • H1
        • REM sleep recall 43% no recall 10%
        • Non REM sleep recall 3% no recall 42%
      • H2
        • Woken after 5 min right 45 wrong 6
        • Woken after 10 right 47 wrong 13
      • H3
        • Horizontal- throwing tomatoes at each other
        • Vertical- climbing a ladder
        • Both- looking at close objects (talking to a group of people)
        • No- looking at distant objects (driving a car then being startled by an obstruction)
    • Conclusion
      • Connection between REM sleep and dreaming
      • Eye movement related to dream content as eyes were moving as if seeing


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