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  • Microscopy
    • Transmission Electron Microscope
      • Electrons pass through the material
      • Magnifactionx500,000
      • Resolution0.2nm
    • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
      • Magnifactionx100,000
      • Electons are 'bounced' of the surface to give a 3D imiage
      • Resolution20nm
    • Light Microscope
      • Easier to see larger cellular structures (nuclei, chloroplasts, vacuoles and occasionly mitochondrian
      • Magnification: x1500
      • Resolution: 200nm
    • Magnification: measure of ability of a lens to magnify the size of an optical image
    • Resolution: ability of a microscope to distinguish two adjacent points as seperate entities
    • Magnification of viewed image
      • Magnification of eyepiece x magnification of lens
    • Magnification equation
      • Length in picture/Real length
    • Use of stains
      • Light microscopy: dyes absorb some colours but reflect others
      • TEM: Used to stain electrons


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