Mackenzie 1987 The Hunt

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  • Mackenzie 1987 - The Hunt
    • First arrived in 1850s and by 1970s they were 'flooding' from Europe.
      • Interaction between Europeans and Africans, a symbol of white dominance, and a determinant of class
        • Their entry was resisted by Mzilikazi and Lobengula but to little affect - the British had big guns!
    • The process
      • 1. Commercial hunting for ivory and skins, for trophies at home and for museums.
      • 2. Hunting was a subsidy for the second level of European advance, acquisition, conquest and settlement. Meat, which had previously been an incidental acquirement, was now essential to pay wages to Africans.
        • 'Massive assault on game.'
      • 3.  From hunting to The Hunt
        • Surrounded by rituals of sportsmanship and demonstrations of class.
          • It was at this stage that conservation came to the fore.
    • The differences between African and European hunting
      • African: meat needed for protein. Hunting part of the process from boyhood to manhood. All lived off the land.
      • Missionaries valued for their guns so hunting skills were necessary to gain support and allies. Appear to be a successful missionary by gaining many 'converts.' Also, Africans had tracking knowledge far superior to that of the British.
    • Destruction of wildlife
      • Demand for meat as wages grew
      • railways were bringing in more explorers, hunters, missionaries,and tourists, all of whom wanted to experience hunting themselves.
        • 'it was not long before it teemed no more.'
      • 1896 rinderpest epidemic wiped out 95% of Africa's game.
      • Traditional African hunting had been quite ineffective and undamaging as it was relatively small-scale, but this changed with the introduction of guns.
    • Conservation
      • hunters who justified their activities on scientific grounds (discovering, understanding, not just sport) were the most rigarous in conservation despite their responsibility for the decline in game.
      • Incompatability between presence of people and the survival of game
        • Hence the exile of people including natives from the nature reserves and national parks.
      • Implementation of game regulations retricted those that could hunt
        • 'Europeans took all the guns from Africans and refused to let them shoot game... If an African shoots an animal with a gun, the African is arrested and the gun is confiscated.'
  • Missionaries valued for their guns so hunting skills were necessary to gain support and allies. Appear to be a successful missionary by gaining many 'converts.' Also, Africans had tracking knowledge far superior to that of the British.

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