Metals

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  • Created by: Clare
  • Created on: 21-02-13 18:39
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  • Metals
    • Metallic crystals
      • Giant structure of positrive ions surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons
      • Malleable
        • Layers of positive ions can slide over each other
      • Conduct electrocity
        • Delocalised electrons move to pass electric current
      • Delocalised  electrons sea is formed from the outer shell electrons
        • They can now move between ions instead of being associated with 1 atom
    • Reactivity
      • Potassium
      • Sodium
      • Lithium
        • Electrolysis
          • Sodium
          • Potassium
          • Aluminium
      • Calcium
        • Electrolysis
          • Aluminium
      • Magnesium
        • CARBON
        • Zinc
          • Displacement with carbon
        • Iron
          • Displacement with carbon
        • Copper
          • Silver
          • Gold
            • Found naturally
              • Silver
        • Extraction
          • Ores
            • Naturally occuring rocks which contain a metal in a high enough concentration to makje it worthwhile extrcting
            • More expensive if: Ores are hard to obtain, expensive extraction method, low percentage in the ore
          • Ores often contain metal oxides
            • REDUCTION
              • Lose oxygen and become metals
        • Uses
          • Aluminium
            • Low density metal
            • Resistant to corrosion
            • Strong
            • Reflective
            • Drinks cans
            • Electricity cables
            • Aircraft parts
            • Bike frames
            • Mirrors/ Reflectors
          • Copper
            • Excellent conductor of heat and electricity
            • Malleable
            • Ductile
            • Plumbing
            • Electrical wiring
            • Doesn't corrode in water
          • Gold
            • Jewellery
            • Dentistry
            • Electrical conductor
            • Doesn't corrode
        • Rusting
          • Rust= iron oxide
          • Completely changes a metals properties
          • Soft crumbly substance that forms on the surface of iron/ steel
          • Iron + Oxygen= (Hydrated) Iron oxide
            • Can be oxygen in air or in water
          • Regular cleaning/ oil and grease
          • Galvinising/ Sacrificial protection
            • Putting a layer of a more reactive metal which turns to metal oxide
              • Forms a protective layer (Zinc oxide)
        • Electrolysis
          • Expensive due to high cost of electricity
          • Breaking up a compound by passing an electrical cuirrent thought he solution
          • Positive Anode
            • Loses electrons= OXIDISED
              • OIL RIG
          • Liquid only so ions can move
          • Extracting Aluminium
            • Bauxite (ore)  remove impurities= Aluminium
            • Melted Aluminium oxide
              • Cryolite lowers melting point
            • Negative tank with 3 positive electrodes made of carbon
            • Oxygen collects on positive electrodes which must be replaced often as CO2 is formed
              • O2- = O2 + 4e-
            • Aluminium collects at bottom and is piped off
              • Al3+= Al + 3e-
          • Negative Cathode
            • Gains electrons= REDUCED
              • OIL RIG
            • Metal produced here
          • Use= electroplating-improve appearance and protect
          • Solution contains IONS= positive and negative
            • More reactive element stays in solution
          • Copper can be purified
          • IONIC- there are charged particles
        • Alloys
          • Mixture of different metal atoms
          • Changes the properties of a metal
          • Memory alloys
            • Return to their shape after being deformed
              • Braces, Spectacle frames
          • Pure metals have atoms of the same size arranged in layers so they just slide over each other= soft and brittle
            • Add in atoms of different sizes which interfere and make the metal stronger
          • +Carbon= Stronger
          • +Titanium= stronger, lighter
          • +Chromium= corrosion resistant
        • Recycling
          • Ores are non renewable
          • Advantages
            • Reduces energy use in extraction and transport
            • Less environmental damage from mining
            • Saves money
            • Reduces landfill
      • Metal produced here

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