M:6 S:5 Immobilised Enzymes

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  • Immobilised Enzymes
    • Uses in industrial processes
      • Conversion of dextrin to glucose
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      • Production of semi-synthetic penicillins
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      • Conversion of glucose to fructose
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      • Conversion of lactose to glucose + galactose
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      • Production of pure samples of L-amino acids
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    • Isolated enzymes can be immobilised
      • 3 main ways
        • Trapped ina silica gel matrix
        • Encapsulatedin jelly-like Latinate beads
          • Act as semi-permeable membrane
        • Convalently bonded to cellulose or collagen fibres
      • Products need to be separated from the mixture
        • Complicated and costly
          • Avoided in large scale production by immobilising them
            • Enzymes that are attached to an insoluble molecule so they can't be mixed
      • Substrate solution for the reaction is run through a column of immobilised enzymes
      • Can become mixed in with the products of a reaction
      • +ve and -ve
        • Disadvantages
          • IE are more expensive to buy than free
            • Not always economical for use in small-scale production
          • Extra equipment required
            • Expensive
          • Sometimes lead to reduction of enzyme activity
            • Can't freely mix with their substrate
        • Advantages
          • Product isn't mixed
            • No £ or time is spent separating them
          • Columns can be washed and reused
            • Reduces cost
          • IE are more stable than free enzymes
            • Less likely to denature in ^ temps or extreme PH
      • The active sites are available to catalyse reactions
        • But the solution flowing out of the column will only contain the desired product
    • QUESTIONS
      • 6. Name the IE that converts glucose to fructose
      • 3. Name an industrial process that relies heavily on the action of immobilised penicillin acylase
      • 5. A team of food technicians is designing a protocol for the mass production of glucose syrup
        • The enzyme glucoamyalseplays a key role in this process. They are deciding whether to use immobilised or free enzymes
          • B. Give 2 disadvantages of using immobilised GA rather than free GA
          • A. What role does glucoamylaseplay in the manufacture of glucose syrup?
      • 2. Name a type of product that involves immobilised lactase in its production
      • 4. Aminoacyalse is used in industry in the production of our samples of L-amino acids
        • A. The aminacyalse can be immobilised. What does this mean?
        • B. Give 3 ways in which aminoacylasecan be immobilised
      • 1. List 3 advantages of using IE in industry

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