M:6 S:5 Biotechnology Part One

View mindmap
  • BiotechnologyPart One
    • The industrial use of living organisms in industry
      • Usually micro - organisms (bacteria and fungi)
        • Can be grown on a range of inexpensive materials
          • Makes them economic to use
        • Short life cycle
          • Grow rapidly under the right conditions
        • Grow at any time of year
        • Ideal growth conditions can be easily created
          • They will grow successfully if they have the right nutrients, temperature, PH, moisture levels and availability of gases
      • Also use parts of living organisms (enzymes)
        • Intracellular
        • Isolated
          • Some are secreted naturally (extracelluar)
            • Cheaper to use
          • Some need to be extracted
            • Expensive to extract from cells
    • Used in a wide variety of industrial processes
      • Yoghurt
        • Same as cheese making
        • Bacteria is added to milk
          • Flavours and colours added
      • Cheese
        • Traditionally in the lining of a calves stomach
          • Now - GMed yeast cells
      • Penicillin
        • Most common antibiotic
        • In times of stress, fungi produce the Penicillium genus
          • Produce penicillin to stop bacteria growing & competing
        • Grown in industrial fermenters
          • Collected & purified
      • Baking
        • Yeast - bread
      • Insulin
        • Made by GMed bacteria
          • Have the gene for human insulin inserted into DNA
        • Hormone crucial for people with Type 1 diabetes
        • Grown in a industrial fermenter
          • Insulting collected & purified
      • Brewing (making beer)
        • Yeast, grain & other ingredients
          • Yeast respires anaerobically
            • Produces ethanol - Fermentation
      • Bioremediation
        • Bacteria break down pollutants
          • Into less harmful substances
        • Using organisms to remove pollutants from contaminated sites
    • Microorganisms in food production
    • Fermentation vessels
      • Uses cultures of microorganisms
        • 'Culture' = popualtion of one type of microorganism that has been grown under controlled conditions
      • 2 Methods:
        • 1. Batch Fermentation
          • Individual batches
            • At the end, one culture is removed and another grown
              • Seen as a 'closed culture' (see part 2)
        • 2. Continuous Fermentation
          • Cultures grown continuously
            • Nutrients are put in and waster products taken out at a constant rate
      • In vessels to either...
        • B) Collect losts of a useful product that the MO makes
        • A) obtain list of the MO
      • The conditions need to be kept at optimum for the growth
        • Access to nutrients
          • Paddles circulate fresh nutrient medium around vessel
            • Ensures MOs always have access
        • Temperature
          • Water jacket around vessel
        • Volume of oxygen
          • Sterile air is pumped into vessel when needed
            • Respiration
        • PH
          • Constantly monitored
            • Allows enzymes to work efficiently, so ROR is kept ^
              • Water jacket around vessel
        • Vessel kept sterile
          • Superheated steam sterilise vessel after every use
            • Kills any unwanted organisms to reduce competiton

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Ecology, ecosystems and environmental biology resources »