M:6 S:5 Animal Cloning

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  • Animal Cloning
    • Natural
      • Splitting of fertilised egg in early stages of development
        • E.g. Twins
    • Artifical
      • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
        • 2. Nucleus from egg cell of sheep B is extracted - enucleated cell
        • 1. Somatic cell (not a reproductive cell) is taken from sheep A
          • Nucleus is extracted
        • 3. Nucleus from A is inserted into B
        • 4. Fused together through electrofusion
          • Produces embryo
        • 5. Embryo implanted into surrogate mother
          • Lamb is identical to sheep A
        • Dolly  the sheep - 5th July 1996
      • Artifical Embryo Twinning
        • 2. Left to divide at least once
          • Forms an embryo in vitro
        • 1. Egg cell is extracted from a female and fertilised in a petri dish
        • 3. Individual cells from embryo are separated into different petri dishes
          • Left to divide and develop normally
        • Similar to what happens naturally in animals. This example is with cows:
        • 4. Separate embryos are implanted into surrogate mothers
        • 5. Continue ti develop and all offspring will be identical
    • Uses
      • 1. Research purposes
        • Medicine for new drugs
      • 2. Save endangered from extinctin
      • 3. Agriculture
        • Farmers can increase the number of animals with a  beneficial characteristic
      • 4. Animals have been genetically modified to produce useful substances
        • Beneficial protein in cow milk
    • Arguments For and Against
      • Against
        • 1. Difficult, time-consuming and expensive
        • 3. Clone may not live as long as other animals
          • Unethical
        • 4. Embryos that aren't used are destroyed
          • Some believe this is destroying a human life
      • For
        • 3. Increasing the pop of endangered species
          • Helps to preserve biodiversity
        • 2. Infertile animals can not reproduce
        • 4. No breeding seasons - can happen at any time
        • 1. Desirable genetic characteristic is passed on
          • Doesn't always happen with sexual reproduction
        • 5. Help develop new treatments for disease
          • Less suffering for some people
    • QUESTIONS
      • 3. Give 5 uses of animal cloning
      • 2. Describe how artifical embryo twinning is carried out
      • 4. A team of sceintists wants to create a herd of cloned alpacas from Alpaca A, which has a desirable characteristic for wool production
        • A) Outline how they could create a clone of Alpaca A using SCNT
          • B) Give 2 arguments again creating a cloned herd
      • 1. Describe how clones occur naturally

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