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  • lungs
    • sequence air passes into human lungs
      • 1.nasal passages
      • 2.pharynx (throat)
      • 3.larnyx
      • 4.lung
      • 5.bronchi
      • 6.bronchioles
      • 7.alveoli
    • trachea
      • white tube which carries air to the bronchus
      • about 20 rings of hard cartilage keep the passage open during pressure changes
      • cartilage rings are c shaped, seperated by muscle and elastic tissue
      • soft tissue allows trachea to be flexible and stretch
    • bronchus
      • first branch of the trachea
      • allows passage of air into the bronchioles
      • also have cartilage in the walls to keep them open
      • bronchioles
        • smaller branches of the bronchus
        • end in clusters of alveoli
        • smaller bronchioles have only muscle fibre and elastic tissue so they can contract and relax easily during respiration
    • alveolus
      • mini air scs
      • lined with epithelium
      • gas exchange surface
      • covered with a network of capillaries
      • provide a large surface area for gas exchange
    • cartilage
      • flexible,supporting material
      • incomplete rings support the smooth muscle keeping the tubes open
      • prevents trachea and bronchi from collapsing when air pressure lowers during ventilation
    • smooth muscle
      • contracts and relaxes
    • elastic fibres
      • stretches and recoils
    • goblet cells
      • produces mucus
    • ciliated epithelium
      • fine hair like outgrowths
        • synchronised movement to transport substances across pharynx
    • inhalation
      • external intercostal muscles contract
      • ribcage moves up and out
      • volume of thorax increases
      • diaphragm muscles contract
      • pressure decreases
      • air pulled in
    • exhalation
      • external intercostal mucles relax
      • diaphram relaxes
      • ribcage moves in and down
      • volume decreases
      • pressure increases
      • air is pushed out
    • spirometer
      • soda lime can removes excess carbon dioxide
      • person breaths in and out into mouth piece, spiirometer moves up and down
      • controls movement of pen up and down to mimic breathing
      • mouth piece connects to the tube into the chamber
    • tidal volume: volume of air breathed in or out in a normal breath
    • residual volume:volume of air that remains in the alveoli after forced exhalation
    • vital capacity:volume of air that can be exchanged with maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation


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