Lung disease- TB, emphaseyma, Fibrosis & Asthma

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  • Created by: Lilly
  • Created on: 03-01-13 17:36
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  • Lung Diseases
    • TB, caused by Mycobacterium Tuberclulosis
      • Physical Changes: -Tubercles form, -parts of lung collapses and fluid collects, -scarring on lung, -muscle and tissue roken down
      • Symptoms- shortness of breath, fatigue, chestpains, perssitant cough, fever, coughing up blood
      • Effect on gas exchange and ventilation: - Reduced surface ofgas exchangge, breathing made more difficult, -Tubercles reduce tidal volume
      • Immune system cells build up around bacteria in the lungs. Infected tissue in tubercles die, gas exchange surface reduced
    • Fibrosis, caused by excessive dust inhilation
      • Physical changes:-Alveoli structure breaks down, - fibrious noudles make lungs stiff and less felxible, -fibrious tissue develops
      • Effect in gas exchange and ventilation: -lungs & alveoli can't stretch, so there is a small tidal vokume ~(exercise difficult), -can no longer inhale and exhale normally, rate of gas exchnage reduced= shortness of breath
      • Symtoms: - shortness of breath, -dry cough,- chest pains, -fatigue & weakness
      • Scar tissue makes lungs thicker and less elastic than normal, lungs less able to expand= tidal volume reduced, reduction in rate of gas exchnage surface- diffusion slower across a thicker membrane
    • Emphaseyma, caused by tobacco smoke
      • Efect on gas exchnage& ventilation: Lungs cannot contract properly- eercise is difficult, - gas exchange slower due to loss of surface area in alveoli
      • Physical chnages: - breaks down alveoli structure, leaving large spaces in the lung, - loss of elasticity reduces ability to contract and expand
      • Symptoms: -Wheezing, shortness of breath
      • Causes inflamation, attracting phagocytes to are, which produce enzymes that hydrolyse elastin protein in alveoli), loss of elastin- alveoli can't recoil to expel air, so is trapped in the alveoli, leads to breakdown of alveoli wall- reducing surface aea, rate of gas exchnage decreased
    • Asthma, caused by allergens- feathers, dust, tobacco smoke
      • Effect on gas exchange and ventilation: -reduced gas exchange, -reduced consumption of Oxygen,- flow of air reduced bronchioles are contracted.
      • Physical Chnages: -mucus produced, cyanosis, histamines cause inflamation, contraction of bronchi muscles
      • Smooth muscle linning of bronchiole contract large volumes of mucus are produced, Causes contraction of air ways- difficult to breath. Tidal volume reduced= less Oxygen inspired, histamines cause inflation can lead to cyanosis


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