Long and Cross C Designs

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  • Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Designs
    • Cross-cultural
      • AO1
        • Repeating research in various different cultures.
        • Different people are studied each time
        • Results are compared to identify cultural similarities and differences.
        • Investigates the effect of nature and nuture
          • Diff: nuture Same: nature
        • Uses a research method eg survey
        • Child Psych: studies diff child rearing styles in diff cultures
          • Eg, Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg compared the rates of att types in 8 diff countries around the world.
      • AO2
        • Rel: both situational and P variables aren't controlled. Both different environ and individual differences could affect the results.
        • Rel: try and increase it by making the procedure as standardised as possible.
        • Socially sensitive: identifies a negative charac in a certain culture as one is bound to come out better than another and this can be offensive.
        • Val: Researchers are a product of their own culture and are biased towards it. They could easily test the hypothesis in an inappropriate way to one culture.
          • Eg, Ainsworth.. the SS is biased to American norms and not Japan (eg)
    • Longitudinal
      • AO1
        • Repeating research at various points in time.
        • The same people are studied each time
        • Results at each stage are compared to reveal developmental trends.
        • Involves use of a research method eg survey
        • Child Psych: studies the dev of children over time
          • Eg: Hodges and Tizard studied children who had been in institutional care since before 4mths old. Interviews with carers and teachers as well as observing them and admin IQ tests at 4.5, 8 and 13.
      • AO2
        • Rel: P variables are controlled as the same people are studied. Individual differences like age and gender that could affect the results are minimised as the same people are compared.
        • Rel: Situational variables aren't controlled because the study needs to occur over time so the environ will be very different in terms of the room it took place in etc.
        • Gen issues: hard to find a large group of people that are willing to commit to something for so long, its likely many people will drop out. Results in a small sample size so not rep of target popn. Bias could arise as the people that do drop out are diff to those who stay.
        • Ethics: all briefed etc but may feel pressured to continue with the study as it would let the researchers down.


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