Long Term Memory

  • Created by: RahmaM
  • Created on: 28-12-14 16:53
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  • Long Term Memory
    • Duration
      • BAHRICK ET AL 1975
        • Aim: Establish existence of long term memory and differences between recognition and recall
          • Procedure: 392 graduates were shown photographs from their high school year book
            • RECOGNITION: Each photo, participant given group of names. Match names to faces
            • RECALL: Participant given photos only
            • Findings: 90 % Correct after 14 years after graduation, 80% correct after 25 years 60% after 47 years
        • Conclusion: People can remember certain types of information for up to a lifetime. Recognition > Recall
        • Supporting evidence this study: Shepard 1967. Participants able to recognise pictures seen an hour earlier when viewed. Still able to recall about 50% of photos four months after
        • Information is meaningful and relates to participants
      • Potentially up to a life time
    • Encoding
      • Semantic
      • BADDELEY 1966
        • Aim: To discover the effects of acoustic and semantic coding in LTM
          • Procedure: Participants divided into 4 groups and shown list of 10 words from one of four categories. After interval of 20 mins while doing another task, were asked to recall words in correct order.
            • Acoustically similar: (man,mad,map)
            • Acoustically dissimilar (pen,day,few)
            • Semantically similar (great, large, big)
            • Semantically dissimilar (hot, old, late)
            • Findings: Recall was much worse for semantically similar words 55% accuracy than semantically dissimilar 85% accuracy
      • Semantic encoding makes cognitive sense.
      • Different types of LTM, procedural memory and episodic memory are rarely researched, may not be encoded in the same way
      • Difficult to see how smells and tastes could be encoded semantically
    • Capacity
      • ANOKHIN 1973
        • Estimated the number of possible neuronal connections in human brain is 1 followed by 10.5 million km of noughts. Suggesting capacity is limitless
      • LINTON 1975
        • Spent six years creating diary of 5,500 personal events. Tested herself for recognition of events each month. Excellent recall of dates
      • WAGENAAR 1986
        • Created diary of 2,400 events over six years. Recall on events rather than dates. Excellent recall
      • Potentially unlimited
    • Memory of events that have happened in the past. From 2 minutes to 100 years.


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