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  • Traditional Engineering Structures
    • Soft Engineering
      • Beach Replenishment
        • A: looks completely natural and provides a beach for tourists and absorbs wave energy
        • D.A: Sea erodes it away and has to be replaced every few years
      • managed retreat
        • A: people and activities are gradually moved back from vulnerable areas of the coast and this means natural processes can happen
        • D.A. Compensation must be paid and lots of disruption to lives and businesses
      • Cliff regarding
        • A: making the cliff face longer so that it is less steep and this means the angle of the cliff is reduced and so mass movement is less likely and it is cheap
        • D.A: Other methods will need to be used to stop the base of the cliff from deepening by erosion and properties on the cliff may have to be demolished
    • Hard Engineering
      • Groynes
        • A: Prevent movement by longshore drift and can build up a natural defence of erosion and be an attraction for tourists
        • D.A: Not attractive and don't last long as wood rots and since sand is prevented from moving along the coast it could lose other places' beaches
      • Seawall
        • A: protects the base of cliffs from erosion because it is made up of resistant concrete.
          • A: Land and buildings behind it are protected and the curve shape reflects the wave energy
            • D.A: Expensive to build and maintain, restricts access to the beach and is unattractive
      • RipRap
        • A: Absorb wave energy and protect weak cliffs and look natural
        • D.A: Can be expensive and can still let wave energy though and can restrict access to the young and elderly
      • Offshore Breakwater
        • A: Waves break on barrier before reaching the coast which allows a wide beach to develop
        • D.A: Very expensive and can interfere with boats
      • Stepped Revetment
        • A: They absorb and spread wave energy through slats and they don't interfere with longshore drift
        • D.A: Requires regular maintenance and is expensive


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