Loftus & Palmer Mindmap

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  • Loftus & Palmer
    • Conclusions
      • the verb used in a question influences a participant's response
      • people are not good at guessing vehicular speed
      • misleading post event information can distort memory
      • 2 kinds of information make a complex occurrence: information gleaned during the perceptions of the original event + post event information
    • Theories
      • Schema theory - memory is influenced by what we already know
      • Schemas - simplifie, generalsied mental representations
      • Bartlett - reconstructive memory theory
    • Procedure
      • EXPERIMENT 1: -shown 7 different films - given a questionnaire with a critical question - the question was 'About how fast were the cars going when they hit/smashed/collided/contacted/bumped each other -l
      • EXPERIMENT 2: - one minute film of a  4 second car crash - given a questionnaire with a critical questionnaire- the question was "About how fast were the cars  going when they smashed/hit each other?' (the control group were not asked this question) - a week later they were asked whether there was broken glass in the video or not (there was no  glass in the original video)
    • Findings
      • EXPERIMENT 1:  smashed - 40.5   collided - 39.3  bumped - 38.1             hit - 34.0  contacted - 31.8
      • EXPERIMENT 2: smashed - 16 yes, 34 no              hit - 7 yes, 43 no       control - 6 yes, 44 no
    • Variables
      • EXPERIMENT 1 - IV: wording of a critical questions DV: estimated speed
      • EXPERIMENT 2 - IV: wording of a critical question in a questionnaireDV: whether they thought there was broken glass or nor
    • Aim
      • To see the effects of 'leading questions; on an individual's ability to accurately remember events
    • Background
      • Distortion of memory - certain features of a situation can bias a memory
    • Research Method
      • laboratory experiment, independent groups
    • Sample
      • EXPERIMENT 1: 45 students split between 5 groups EXPERIMENT 2: 150 students split between 3 groups

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