Localisation of function AO3

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  • Created by: Jordan64
  • Created on: 23-08-17 17:44
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  • Localisation of function AO3
    • Localisation support from brain scans
      • Petersen et al (1988): brain scans to show activity in Wernicke's area during listening task and Broca's area during reading task
        • Suggests these areas of brain have different functions
          • Number of sophisticated and objective methods for measuring activity in brain, providing scientific evidence for localisation of function
        • Tulving et al (1994): long term memory study finding semantic and episodic memories located in different parts of frontal cortex
          • Suggests these areas of brain have different functions
            • Number of sophisticated and objective methods for measuring activity in brain, providing scientific evidence for localisation of function
    • Localisation support from neurological evidence
      • Removing or destroying areas of brain to control aspects of behaviour developed 1950's Walter Freeman - early attempts were brutal and imprecise
        • Dougherty et al (2002): 44 OCD patient cingulotomy. 32 week follow up, 33% criteria for successful response to surgery, 14% partial
          • Success of procedure suggests symptoms and behaviours associated with serious mental disorders are localised
    • Localisation support from case studies
      • Phineas Gage received serious neurological brain damage in accident
        • Survived but damage affected personality - calm and reserved to quick-tempered, rude and 'no longer Gage'
          • Change in Gage's temperament following accident suggests frontal lobe responsible regulating mood
    • Contradictory research
      • Lashley (1950) suggests higher cognitive functions not localised but distributed in more holistic way
        • Removed 10% - 50% cortex in rats learning maze. No area was more important than any other in terms of rats' ability to learn maze
          • Suggests learning too complex localised and involves different areas of brain
    • Neural plasticity challenge to localisation theory
      • When brain damage & function lost, rest brain able reorganise itself & recover function
        • Lashley: law of equipotentiality - other areas of brain 'chip in' so same neurological action achieved
          • Several documented cases of stroke victims recovering abilities lost - suggests holistic

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