Unit 2 Section 1.4 Lipids

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  • Lipids
    • What are lipids made from?
      • lipids are made from a variety of different components but contain hydrocarbons
        • the components that they are made from relates to the lipids function
          • there are 3 types of lipids
            • Triglycerides
            • Phospholipids
            • Cholesterol
    • Triglycerides
      • have one molecules of glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached to it
        • eac fatty acid is joined to the glycerol by a ESTER bond
          • fatty acids have long tails made of hydrocarbons
            • these tails are hydrophobic
              • making lipids insoluble in water
          • there are two types of Fatty Acid
            • saturated
              • dont have any double bonds between their carbon atoms
              • the fattu acids are saturated with hydrogen
            • unsaturated
              • have double bonds between carbon atoms which causes the chain to kink
    • Phospholipids
      • these are similar to triglycerides except one of the fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate group
        • the phosphate group is ionised which makes it attract water molecules
          • so the phosphate part of a phospholipid is hydrophilic while the rest of the fatty acids is hydrophobic
    • Cholesterol
      • is a type of lipid often found in cell membranes
      • it is used to make other things like steroids
      • it has a hydrocarbon ring structure attached to a hydrocarbon tail
        • the hydrocarbon ring structure has a polar hydroxyl group attached t it
    • Functions of Lipids
      • Triglycerides are mainly used as energy storage molecules
      • they are good for this because they have long hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids contain lots of chemical energy
      • Phospholipids make up the bilayer of cell membranes, cell membranes control what enters and leaves a cell.
        • phospholipid heads are hydrophilic and their tails are hydrophobic
      • Cholesterol molecules help stengthen the cell membrane by interacting with the phospholipid bilayer
        • The small size and flattened shape allows cholesterol to fit in between the phospholipid molecules in the membrane
  • it is insoluble in blood, so is carried around the body by proteins called lipoproteins
    • Cholesterol
      • is a type of lipid often found in cell membranes
      • it is used to make other things like steroids
      • it has a hydrocarbon ring structure attached to a hydrocarbon tail
        • the hydrocarbon ring structure has a polar hydroxyl group attached t it

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