Lipids

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  • Lipids
    • Function
      • Source of energy - respired to release energy to generate ATP
      • Energy storage
      • Make up all biological membranes
      • Insulation
      • Protection
      • Steroid hormones are lipids
    • Structure
      • Fatty acids
        • Have an acid group at one end; the rest is made up of a hydrocarbon chain that can be anything between 2-20 carbons long
      • Glycerol
        • 3-carbon molecule that forms the basis of lipids when fatty acids are bonded to it
    • Saturated
      • When all the carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains have single hydrogen bonds between them - bad
    • Unsaturated
      • When one or more bonds between the carbon atoms are double bonds - good
    • Triglycerides
      • Consists of 1 glycerole molecule bonded to 3 fatty acids
      • Condensation reaction: covalent bond forms between acid group of fatty acid and OH hydroxyl group of glycerole molecule - water also produced
        • New bond = an ester bond
      • Insoluble in water - hydrophobic: charges distributed evenly around the molecule
        • Hydrogen bonds can't form with water molecule
    • Phospholipids
      • Consists of a glycerole molecule with fatty acid molecules bonded with ester bonds
      • Phosphate head = hydrophyllic (water loving); fatty acid tails = hydrophobic (water hating)
      • Create phospholipid bilayer in biological membranes
    • Cholesterol
      • Made from 4 carbon based rings
      • Small, narrow structure; hydrophobic - can sit between phospholipid hydrocarbon tails
      • Regulates fluidity of the membrane
    • Steroid hormones
      • Can pass directly through phospholipid bilayer of nuclear envelope to their target receptors in the nucleus
        • Example: testosterone

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