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  • Created by: Mazza24
  • Created on: 16-11-15 19:09
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  • Lipids
    • These contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
      • Aren't soluble in water (hydrophobic) but they are soluble in organic solvents such as ether or ethanol
    • phospholipids
      • similar to triglycerides, except that one of the fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate group.
        • contain hydrophobic tails (fatty acid molecules) that are insoluable
          • Cell membranes also contain the steroid cholesterol. Which is hydrophobic and is found wedged in the phospholipid bilayer.
        • Hydrophilic heads (glycerol part) that are soluable
        • are polar this property is important in determining their orientation + function in cell membranes.
    • triglycerides
      • Formed through the combination of glycerol and fatty acid molecules.
      • are organic acids that form long hydrocarbon tails linked to a carboxyl group at one end of the chain
      • In each triglyceride, one glycerol molecule is joined with three fatty acid molecules by (3) condensation reactions
      • The condensation reactions are formed between the the -OH groups of the glycerol and the carboxyl group of each fatty acid. for each condensation reaction, an ester bond is formed
      • Hydrolysis of a triglyceride (occurs during lipid digestion) uses three moles of water and produces three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
      • E.g. Fats and Oils
        • fats- solid at room temp. Oils- liquid at room temp.
      • Excellent energy store as they release more energy per unit mass than carbohydrate
      • Fats are also important for insulation and are stored below the skin to protect body organs
    • Unsaturated and Saturated fatty acids
      • Saturated
        • contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms (i.e each carbon atom is linked with two hydrogen atoms)
        • Carbon atoms are linked by C-C single bonds
        • fats tend to be formed from saturated fatty acids
      • Unsaturated
        • have atleast one C=C double bond in the chain.
          • +1 C=C -polyunsaturated
          • 1 C=C -monounsaturated
        • Oils tend to be form from TRIGLYCERIDES with unsaturated hydrocarbon chains (shorter chains)


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