Line ups

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  • Line ups
    • Police & Criminal Evidence Act
      • 2008
        • Allow video line ups
      • 1984
        • Required police to conduct live ID parades whenever possible
        • Use 8 distractors
      • Valentine (2003)
        • 640 eye witnesses in 314 real life line ups
        • Correct suspect identified 4% of the time
        • 20% identified incorrectly
        • 40% failed to make an identification
    • System & Estimator Variables
      • Wells & Olson found system & estimator variables influence identification
      • System variables
        • Witness given pre line up instructions e.g. suspect may not be in line up
          • When told suspect might not be in line up, mistaken identification fell by 40%
        • Distractors should not be so different that they stand out
      • Estimator Variables
        • Weapon during incident
        • Enviromental conditions of incident e.g. time, weather, lighting
    • Simultanous Line ups
      • Witness views all people in a line at the same time
      • Main problem- False positive choices are more likely
        • Witness will choose whoever looks the most familiar and more so when they have not been told the suspect may not be in the line up
    • Sequential Line ups
      • Prevents relative judgement & encourages absolute judgement
      • Witness sees each member of like up 1 at a time
      • Dunning & Stem
        • Eye witness who use process of eliminate are more likely to make false identification (supports sequential)
    • VIPER
      • Head & shoulder images stored on PC
      • Advantages
        • Sequential
        • Easy to find foils
          • Suspect description leads to selecting 8 similar foils which are shown for 20 secs each
        • Witness can do this at their own convenience
        • Don't get seen by suspect
        • Cost & time effective


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