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    • 3Types of Rocks
      • Sedimentary rocks
        • chalk, clay, limestone, slate, sandstone
        • Made of rock which were laid down in layers, usually under water. The sediment was compressed into new rocks.
      • Igneous rocks
        • Basalt, Granite
        • Formed when molten rocks cooled down to form rocks
      • Metamorphic rocks
        • Quartzite
        • Sedimentary or igneous rocks which have been changed by heat or pressure
    • Weathering
      • Weathering is the break down or changing shape of rocks in situ(in the same place) The rocks are attacked by the weather, sometimes animals and plants change the shape of rocks.
      • Freeze thraw weathering
        • when water fills a crack in a rock, then the water freezes and the ice expands, and it repeats. Eventually, the rock breaks in to several pieces. Usually happens in the mountains
      • Onion skin weathering
        • happens when a rock is repeatedly heated and cooled. So the layers of the rock peeled off. Onion skin weathering happenes in the desert,
      • Chemical weathering
        • caused by rain which includes a little bit of acid, so the rock is attacked by the acid rain over time, and the rock corrodes.
      • Biological weathering
    • Features fo Limestone caused by weathering
      • exposed limestone pavement
        • When limestone is exposed and it is attacked by freeze thaw, biological and chemical weathering
      • clint
      • gryke
      • sink hole (pot holes)
        • where water sinks into the limestone and into the cave below. This causes the land above to sink
      • river emerges
      • pillar
        • Stalacmite
        • Stalactite
        • Water goes through the cave, and it drops. It freezes and grows. The ice grew at the bottom is stalacmite, and the ice grew on the celing is stalactite. They keep on growing and meets. That is pillar
      • stalactite
      • swallow hole
        • this is where a river disappears through limestone rock into the cave below. The river then flows underground through limestone rock and reappears further down stream
    • Limestone was formed 350 million years ago where there were seas. In the sea, there were many living organisms like fish and coral. When they died, their bodies and shells sank to the bottom, forming layers at the bottom of the sea. This continued happening until there were many layers which were compressed together by the new layers on top. Thesea disappeared over time. The layers continued to be compressed until they hardiened and formed rock. This rock is called limestone. TI has many fossils inside. Limestone is calcium carbonate, older limestone is carboniferous.


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