Lifespan changes of sleep research

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  • Lifespan changes of sleep research
    • Stern and Morgane (1974) Infants and REM
      • They suggest that REM enables the restoration of neurotransmitters in the brain.
        • Therefore, as Breedlove et al (2007) argued, maybe the high level of REM during early life serves the purpose of stimulating the brain to help it grow and become more organised
          • As the young people engage in learning, maybe they need more REM so that they can process and consolidate the learning
            • This is supporting by the fact that premature babies (whose brains are less mature) spend 90% of their time in REM
              • Some psychologists have even suggested that REM activity may present imagery which further stimulates the brain
    • Van Cauter et al (2000) Older people
      • Examined several sleep studies involving 149 male pps. Found that deep sleep NREM decrease in 2 stages: between 16-25 and then between 35-50
        • It is during NREM that the growth hormone is produced and therefore between these years of repair to body tissues is reduced
          • In fact, by the age of 45, there is so little growth and repair that muscle tone begins to fade, exercise becomes more difficult and obesity is more likely
            • This could maybe explain the symptoms of old age, e.g. lack of energy, lower bone density, impaired functions such as alertness
              • IDA
                • Androcentric
                  • Research is only using men. Women may have different results so man results may not apply to everyone
                    • Does supply detailed exp for men so can be applied and have implications for them
              • Implications
                • It has highlighted the need for treatments to ensure that older people get sufficient sleep so that their later years can be fulfilled as possible
    • Tynjala et al (1993) Adolescence and cultural differences in sleep patterns
      • Surveyed 11-16 year olds from 11 European countries, altogether over 40,000 children responded
        • Israeli's slept least (average 8.5 hours)
        • Swiss slept more (average 9.5)
        • Important contributory factor was numerous evenings spent outside the home meaning young people went to bed late but still had to get up early
      • In Korea, mean sleep time was 6.5 hours and in Iran, 7.7 hours, both supporting that sleep duration is shorter in Asia than Europe
      • IDA
        • Culture
          • Recognsing cultural differences helps to eradicate the cultural bias that has been present in psych research
          • HOWEVER, makes assumptions that we're all the same. Doesn't take into account ind diffs, even in same culture
      • Methodological issue
        • Used surveys so self report technique
          • Good because can get loads of info quickly
            • However, socially desirable answers may become a problem and affect reliability/validity
  • Evolutionary approach
    • IDA
      • Androcentric
        • Research is only using men. Women may have different results so man results may not apply to everyone
          • Does supply detailed exp for men so can be applied and have implications for them
  • In ancient history, life expectancy was less than half of what it is today
    • Evolutionary approach
      • Most people would be dead by age 45, therefore would not need growth/repair so stopped producing hormone, so maybe why it's reduced now
    • Become increasingly important to explore such research especially as countries are becoming ever more diverse and sleep clinicians need to ensure that diagnosis and treatments to sleep problems do not succumb to ethnocentrism
      • Recognsing cultural differences helps to eradicate the cultural bias that has been present in psych research

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