Life Span Changes in Sleep

Life Span Changes in Sleep;





-Old Age

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  • Life Span Changes in Sleep
    • Newborns
      • AO1
        • Enter REM immediately, NREM and REM established after 3 months
        • By 20 weeks, mainly awake between 10am - 8pm
      • AO2
        • Evolutionary advantage - more time to hunt whilst baby sleeps
        • Night waking useful - regular feeding and to warm up if cold
        • Active REM - immature brains - neurotransmitter production
    • Childhood
      • AO1
        • 1yr: sleep 13-14hrs
          • Total sleep decreases. Time spent in each sleep cycle increases
            • 5-12yrs: Total night sleep about 9-10hrs
        • 5-12yrs: Total night sleep about 9-10hrs
      • AO2
        • Cultural Bias: sleeping patterns in 11-16yr olds vary in 11 different countries
          • Korea slept for 6.5hrs
          • Iran slept for 7.7hrs
          • View of behaviour often ignores the variation between cultures
    • Adolescence
      • AO1
        • Puberty - sexual and pituitary growth hormones are released during NREM sleep in pulses.
        • Melatonin influences the biological clock - decrease in this signals puberty to start (also makes feel tired).
          • Although sleep quality and quantity doesn't change much, other external pressures may lead to a less regular sleep cycle.
      • AO2
        • Change in sleep pattern's linked to hormonal changes - primary released at night, disturbing sleep patterns.
        • Causes 'typical puberty' signs
        • Recommend schools to start later to accommodate shorter attention spans
    • Adulthood
      • AO1
        • 18-30yrs - start sleeping less and don't experience such deep sleep.
        • 55% of 18-29yr olds suffer from day time sleepiness.
          • Suggested tthat equal amounts of sleep are required here as in adolescence
        • 30-45yrs: Shallowing and shortening of sleep. Duration drops to about 7hrs, and stage 4 virtually disappears. Increased light sleep stages
          • Age effects prostrate gland - wake more to urinate
      • AO2
        • Increased mortality risk associated with too much sleep.
          • Survey on over 1 million adults - 6/7hrs sleep reduced risk, 8hrs 15% increase, and 10+hrs over 30% increased risk
          • Cause and effect not established
    • Old Age
      • AO1
        • Hormone loss - want to go to sleep earlier due to poor quality sleep
          • Andropause
          • Menopause
        • Total sleep duration unchanged, but REM decreases to 20% and stage 2 increases to 60%
          • Sleep disturbence is common
      • AO2
        • Reduced sleep partly caused by physiological changes and problems staying asleep, e.g. sleepaponea or medical illnress
        • Reduced deep sleep due to less growth hormone production
          • cause common symptoms such as low bone density and lack of energy.
        • Various techniques such as relaxation techniques and use of melatonin use
          • improve life quality


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