life changes and daily hassles

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  • Created on: 10-02-13 17:20
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  • life changes and daily hassles
    • life changes
      • Holmes and Rahe
        • 43 life events were taken from 5000 patient records
        • life events were scored in terms of adjustment needed e.g. marriage=50 points
        • scores for individual life events were totalled and averaged to produce a life change unit for each event
        • this was compared with a questionnaire  (srrs)
        • in conclusion: adjusting to certain life events is stressful which can lead to illness
      • Rahe naval study
        • 2500 sailors were given a questionnaire on LCU
        • this was compared with health records from the past 6 months
        • a correlation was determined: weak positive correlation of 0.118
        • in conclusion: an increase in stress then causes an increase in the risk of physical illness
      • evaluation:
        • only used sailors: therefore the study lack population validity and it makes the results hard to generalise
        • it was a correlational study: it shows the relationship between variables but a cause and effect relationship cannot be determined
        • records were kept over time therefore it was not retrospective and it was an accurate way of determining illness. however you don't go to the doctor every time you are ill so it could be inconclusive
    • Daily Hassles
      • DeLongis et al
        • found that there was a stronger correlation between day-to-day hassles and ill health, than between life events and ill health
        • in evaluation: it was a correlational study therefore there was no cause and effect relationship
        • More about the effect daily hassles and life events have upon each other e.g. if lost a loved one, daily hassles have more impact on you
      • Kanner
        • found no relationship between day-to-day uplifts and health.  Uplifts are daily events that make you feel good,         e.g. having a good night’s sleep; getting on well with friends or receiving a letter from a loved one.  
        • designed a Hassles scale of 117 negative items covering all aspects of daily life and an uplifts scale of 135 positive items
      • Bouteyre et al
        • significant relationship between daily hassles and mental health of students during the transition period to university
        • 233 university students at a french university answered a questionnaire based on the Hassles scale and Beck Depression Inventory.
        • 42% of students sufferred from depressive symptoms and that daily hassles could be considered to be a significant risk factor for depression
        • evaluation: restricted sample as it was only with students therefore it lacks population validity and makes it hard to generalize results. questionnaires were used which is good because it reaches a wide audience however social desirability could affect the validity of the results.
      • evaluation:
        • most of the research is correlational therefore it shows the relationship between variables but not the cause and effect relationship
        • there is a cross-cultural contrast in research supporting the claim that daily hassles contribute to health and social problems


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