body nd soul

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  • Life after death
    • Key terms
      • Dualism: The belief that body + mind are seperate
      • Monism: Body + mind = one thing
      • Materialism: All things = made of physical things. There = no soul
    • Plato (Dualism)
      • Soul = more important than body
      • Body = part of empirical world + subject to change + decay
      • Soul has A priori knowledge + helps us gain insight into world of forms
      • Soul = simple, eternal + unchanging
      • Body has A posteriori knowledge of the world around us in terms of our senses helping us to reach true potential
      • Soul = pre-incarnate, existing before it resided in human body
      • Soul existed in world of forms + = attracted back to earth by appeties ----> Conflict between body +soul, only death frees the soul ---> sould reincarnated into another body + will return to world of forms
    • Aristotle (Dualist + Monist)
      • Soul = prperty of body but = inseperable
      • Not substance like matter but gives matter to forms
      • Ability to reason survives death
      • When body dies, soul dies too
      • Material Efficient Formal Final
        • Four cases (MEFF)
      • NIPLD: Nutrition, Intellect, Perception, Locomotion + Desire
      • ANALOGY 1: IMPRINT IN WAX - soul + body cannot be separated like an imprint of wax cannot be removed from was
      • ANALOGY 2: THE AXE - the physical product of an axe is like the body, + soul = like form of axe-what makes the axe able t chop
      • ANALOGY 3: THE EYE - the physical eye = like body. Soul = eyes ability to see
    • Dawkins (Materialist)
      • Soul 1: Plato#s daulaist ideology (mythological concept)
      • Soul 2: Idea that there = not really a soul as such, there = no afterlife, death = the end of consciousness
      • Hamans carry DNA - passed on through reproduction which = only way of there being a continuing existence
      • Each individual = product of evolution - not G-d
    • Flew
      • A tortion argument
      • Life after death = incoherent because they = 2 mutually exclusive categories
      • E.g. after plane crash you = dead OR alive
    • Descartes (dualist)
      • I think, therefore I am
      • Logically possible to doubt all things include existence of body
      • Mind = soul
      • Persons true identity = their mind
      • Body = divisible into parts + will thus decay
      • PINEAL gland in brain = link between body + soul - only part that = singular + = home to single thought
    • Hick (Materialist/monist)
      • Complete bodily resurrection after death
      • Body + soul = pyscho- somatic unity, they = connected + cannot be seperated
      • Afterlife must include bodily resurrection because person has to have body to be person
      • Replica theory = thought experiment tries to address issue of personal identity (example = john smith in NYC)
      • When you die, your body +soul die too
      • Extract replica = made of body + soul that = alive in heaven
      • G-d = all-powerful + thus would find it easy to crate an exact copy. Replica has memories + characteristics of original so thus - same one.
    • Ryle
      • Mistake in use of language making the soul a separate word, e.g. foreigner 'where is the team spirit?'
      • Idea of soul as a ghost in the machine = category mistake
      • Has resulted in people speaking about soul + body as if they are separate phenomena
      • foreigner watching cricket match: wheres the team spirit? the foreigner expect team spirit to be something identifiablly extra to player, equipment, etc

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