‘Liberalism is hugely influential in British politics, moulding the value systems and policies of all the mainstream political parties.’ Discuss. (30 marks) 

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  • ‘Liberalism is hugely influential in British politics, moulding the value systems and policies of all the mainstream political parties.’ Discuss. (30 marks)
    • Intro
      • whilst the Liberal Party assumed the status of a third partyafter 1922
        • liberalism, as a political philosophy, has nevertheless continued to play a significantrole in influencing
          • not only the values and policies of the Liberal Democrats but also those of the other mainstream political parties
    • links which exist between the core values associated with liberalism and the ideas and programmes possessed and promoted by the mainstream political parties
      • Liberalism is associated with
        • Liberty
        • Freedom
        • Constitutional reform
        • Free market
        • Progressive format = an expanded role for government
          • so as to achieve equality of opportunity for the nation’s citizens
        • These core values continue to drive the Liberal Democrats
          • progressive liberalism appears more influential than classical liberalism in this case
            • Progressive liberalism clearly influenced the economic and social policies of the Attlee governments of 1945–51
            • the Conservative governments whichheld office between 1951 and 1964
              • Progressive liberalism clearly influenced the economic and social policies of the Attlee governments of 1945–51
            • significance and influence of such liberal giants as Keynes and Beveridge
              • The comprehensive welfare state built in the UK after the Second World War, although largely accomplished by the Labour Party, was significantly designed by two Liberals—John Maynard Keynes, who laid the economic foundations
                • and William Beveridge, who designed the welfare system
        • UK Politics from the mid-1970s onwards was impacted and influenced by liberalism, albeit classical liberalism
          • Foundation of the New Right, and came to be known as Thatcherism
            • Economic and Social policies
              • influence of thinkers such as Adam Smith
                • Supporter of industrialisation
                • (1776) The Wealth of Nations
                  • Smith argued that the free market, without any government interference, would produce maximum prosperity for the whole nation.  
              • desire to create a low-inflation economy
                • managed by supply-side methods
                  • So as to create and promote a thriving free market and a strong enterprise culture
              • desire to end the ‘nanny state’ and to restore ‘individual responsibility’ in the social sphere
                • reflects a strong commitment to liberal individualism and personal freedom
        • Analysis of the post-Thatcher era
          • New Labour’s pronouncements and programmes, particularly during Blair’s leadership
            • impact of economic liberalism
              • the rewriting of Clause IV
              • acceptance of the market
              • programmes such as PFI
                • The private finance initiative
                  • funding public infrastructure projects with private capital
            • Progressive Liberalism
              • programmes such as the Third Way
            • Labour’s numerous constitutional reforms could also be said to owe more to liberalism than they do to socialism
            • Brown’s political agenda
              • reflected what is essentially progressive liberalism in the social policy sphere
              • neo-Keynesianism (quantitative easing, for example) in the economic arena
          • Cameron’s attempts to ‘rebrand’ and reposition the Conservative Party since 2005
            • When discussing Cameron’s brand of conservatism the continued influence of economic liberalism should be emphasised
            • social policies appear to owe more to social liberalism than to social authoritarianism
            • advocacy of strong government in such public policy fields as education and health would also appear to be significantly influenced by core progressive liberal values
              • and objectives in his quest to achieve a fairer and more inclusive society
      • Indeed, it could be argued that much of the potential agenda of the Age of Consensus was indebted to liberalism
    • Conclusion
      • liberalism has influenced, and indeed still does, not only party politics in the UK, but that it has permeated the entire political culture
  • Given 15 hours free early education to all 3-4 year-olds and 40% of 2 year-olds. We are also giving free school meals to all children in Reception, Year 1 and Year 2.
    • Examples from Nick Clegg Gov.=
      • Planned to raise the state pension from £107 to around £144, protecting future pensioners with a fair, single tier pension.
      • progressive liberalism appears more influential than classical liberalism in this case
        • the Conservative governments whichheld office between 1951 and 1964
          • significance and influence of such liberal giants as Keynes and Beveridge
            • The comprehensive welfare state built in the UK after the Second World War, although largely accomplished by the Labour Party, was significantly designed by two Liberals—John Maynard Keynes, who laid the economic foundations
              • and William Beveridge, who designed the welfare system

    Comments

    mitchelln28

    really helped me with revising liberalism

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