LIBERALISM (10 Mark Qs) part 2

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: arfa
  • Created on: 30-05-18 10:20
View mindmap
  • LIBERALISM (10 Mark Qs)
    • Explain meritocracy in liberal thinking
      • The belief of rule by the able and talented with merit being viewed as a combination of talent and hard work.
      • New Liberals also believe in meritocracy but equality of opportunity must be generated by the state first to remove artificial barriers preventing success e.g. pupil premium
        • Beveridge: "a starving man is not free"
      • meritocracies, unlike hierarchical systems, allow for social mobility and flexible patterns of inequality as opposed to fixed and structural gradations in social position and wealth.
      • Important to classical liberals as they believe state intervention would prevent self fulfilment and innovation. ppl should be as free as possible in a meritocratic society
    • FREEDOMS
      • Positive Freedom
        • Arose in 19th century after liberals saw the excessive inequalities generated by capitalism. Associated with TH Green
          • T H Green favoured the idea of an ‘organic’ society in which citizens were interdependent as well as independent.
            • In such societies, individuals would achieve self-fulfilment not merely through pursuing their own happiness, but also by pursuing social goals such as the welfare of others.
        • The belief that individual freedom can only be achieved with some govt action so ppl have equal access to freedoms.
          • Beveridge: "a starving man is not free". He came up with NHS idea and social security benefits
        • Has become dominant to modern liberalism. E.g. Lloyd George and free elementary education to all in 1901. Nick Clegg and pupil premium.
      • Negative Freedom
        • Associated with classical liberals. the belief that the greatest enemy to individual freedom is the state. term coined by Isaiah Berlin who said negative freedom represents the areas within which man can act unobstructed by others.
        • Adam Smith: economy will run best if it is run by free individuals. Link to Thatcherism and dogmatic monetarism during recession. ‘the freer the market, the freer the people’
        • More associated with New Right thinkers such as Ayn Rand and Nozick who believed in atomism
        • Only legitimate role of the state is to act as the "nightwatchman"
        • John Locke: “where laws do not exist, man has no freedom”
    • Examine the liberal view of human nature.
      • RATIONAL: Tories use "Original Sin" to suggest humans are irrational and selfish, liberals disregard it, Rousseau said "man is born free"
      • Samuel Smiles argued humans are capable of adapting to their environment and changing their situation so state intervention isn't needed as it undermines human capabilities.
      • no group within society considered less rational than others.
      • Unlike anarchists and to some degree Marxists, liberals believe that any change to the political structure of a society would not in itself lead to a change in human behaviour.
      • liberals recognise that humans could at times act in an anti-social and criminal manner. As such, they favour laws to deal with such behaviour in order to protect individual liberty and freedom. Locke: "nightwatchman"
    • Utilitarianism
      • Coined by Jeremy Bentham who believed a govt could calculate the utility of society and take action in order to maximise it.
        • govt  action will be "the greatest good for the greatest number of people"
      • His son JS Mill rejected his theory as it was inflexible and intolerant. He  argued state intervention is a threat to individual liberty.
        • "better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
      • REJECTED BY MANY LIBERALS BECAUSE:
        • Opens the door to excessive state intervention
        • Could result in tyranny of the majority e.g. persecution of the minorities to satisfy the majority
        • Takes a simplistic view on what brings ppl happiness, it suggests consumption of goods brings about happiness.
    • Why do Liberals support capitalism?
      • ADAM SMITH: laissez faire economics
        • Believed  in a free market- the economy is self regulating and should operate according to the actions of free individuals.
        • A free market gives people a choice of goods to sell and consume and allows workers to choose employees. making economy sufficient
        • Market should be run by the "invisible hand" (market forces) not the govt. Link to Thatcher
        • People have a voluntary and contractual relationship with the market- SOCIAL CONTRACT AND CONSENT.
      • "The freer the market, the freer the people"
      • Social liberals support capitalism but believe in some controls to make it "humane" e.g. Keynesianismto generate full employment. And liberal support for minimum wage
        • Keynes was a liberal who wanted to "save capitalism"
      • an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
    • Why is Democracy important to liberals?
      • Lincoln defined democracy as "government by the people, for the people"
        • This reflects the liberal importance of consent and social contract.
        • People choose who they want to represent their views.
          • However due to nature of FPTP, system is unfair on small parties and leads to tyranny of majority. AV Referendum 2011
      • Believe in a liberal democracy
        • A liberal democracy is a democracy that balances the will of the people, as shown through elections, with limited state and a respect for civil liberties in society.
        • democratic values like accountability, open government, a codified constitution and the separation of powers are all endorsed by liberals.
        • Believe in constitutionalism: states must be controlled by a binding constitution which limits its powers and protects rights.
          • Britain  doesn't have a codified constitution but this value is why they want to remain in EU and support devolution.
    • Why is welfare important to liberals?
      • statutory procedure designed to promote the basic physical and material well-being of people in need.
      • CLASSICAL LIBERALS
        • Nozick, Samuel Smiles etc believe welfare creates a dependancy culture. it is better to allow people to improve themselves as they are capable. this creates a multitude of self sufficient communities.
        • Locke: only legitimate role of the state is to act as a "nightwatchman"
      • SOCIAL LIBERALS
        • Welfare is important to create equality of opportunity.
        • TH Green believed in positive freedoms
        • Beveridge report and "a starving man is not free"
        • David Lloyd George and "people's budget" which introduced idea of welfare funded by taxation.
          • As PM he introduced Old Age Pensions Act 1911 which protected most vulnerable.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Government & Politics resources:

See all Government & Politics resources »See all Liberalism resources »