Liberalism

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  • Liberalism
    • Origins and development
      • a breakdown of feudalism in Europe resulted in liberalism
      • undoubtedly  been the most powerful ideological force shaping the western political tradition
      • early liberalism wanted government interfere as little as possible, seeks to maximize indivdualism
      • Modern liberalism believed that government should be responsible for delivering welfare services
      • Liberalism can be seen as dominating political and social development
    • Core Values
      • The individual - as feudalism was displaced the individual was confronted with more social possibility, everyone can meet their full potential
      • freedom - ability to think or act as one wishes do not believe in the right to absolute freedom as not to harm others (Mill)
      • Reason - reason takes strong over paternalism promoting personal development
      • Justice - distribution of rewards and punishment implies a commitment to foundational equality
      • Toleration - willingness to accept and celebrate diversity "I detest what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it" Voltaire
    • Types of liberalism
      • Early Liberalism
        • Natural rights theory, citizens have inalienable rights such as life, liberty and property they need to be protected by the state
        • People must give their permission before the government can exercise power and people have the right to dissolve the government
      • Classical liberalism
        • Based on freedom would maximize human progress by promoting creativity and fulfillment
        • Belief in the free markets but expected government to prevent monopolies
        • political tolerance and respecting others freedom
      • Social Darwinism
        • "Survival of the fittest" as we are unequal in ability
    • Types of liberalism cont
      • New liberalsm
        • Large parts of society needed help to benefit from classical liberal ideas
          • Capitalism and industrialization had caused problems that needed fixing
          • Movement away from small state to one that would ensure greater equality
          • TH Green called for social conscience because we need to understand out impact on society
      • Welfarism
        • expanded equality of opportunity and positive freedom the state maximizes potential

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