Lexis, Syntax and Grammar

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  • Lexis Semantics and Grammar
    • Lexis
      • First words were put into five categories by Nelson
        • 1 - Classes of Objects
        • 2 - Specific Objects
        • 3 - Actions/Events
        • 4 - Modifying things
        • 5 - Personal social
      • Children will use words creatively if they don't know the meaning of something
        • These are known as over and under extensions
      • Aitchison came up with three development processes
        • Labelling - Can attribute a sound to an object
        • Packaging - When a child starts to understand the range of meaning a word might have.
        • Network Building - when children start to make connections between words
      • Holophrases contain a complete idea
        • Caregivers need contextual cues to interpret these and often rely on paralinguistic communication
    • Syntax
      • This begins at the start of the two-word stage as children start to create grammatical relationships
        • Subject + Verb. Ex, doggy bark.
        • Verb + Object. Ex, throw ball
        • Subject + Object. Ex, baby eat
        • Untitled
      • This consists of around 3-4 utterances at around 2 years old (telegraphic stage)
        • Subject + Verb +Complement. Ex, dog is smelly.
        • Subject + Verb + Object. Ex, baby want drink
        • Verb + Object + Object. Ex, pass daddy suace
    • Grammar
      • Brown found a set order in which Children acquire inflections
        • 1 Present Participle "-ing"
        • 2 Plural "-s"
        • 3 possessive "-'s"
        • 4 articles "a" and "the"
        • 5 Past tense "-ed"
        • 6 Third person singulars "-s"
        • Auxiliary " be"
        • Cruttenden found three stages in which these are learnt
          • Inconsistent usage
          • Consistent but sometimes misapplied
          • Consistent usage
      • Children often use grammatical rules without being taught them as long as they're in an environment where language is being used and they can interact with others
        • Proved through the Wug Test
      • Bellgui categorised the process of children learning negatives, pronouns and questions
        • Negatives. 1) use no or not to form negatives. 2)use no and not in front of verbs and develop contracted negatives. 3) moves the negative inside the sentence
        • Pronouns. 1) using their own name. 2) recognises I/me pronouns 3) uses pronouns according to whether they are in the subject or object position
        • Questions. 1) use of rising intonation. 2) the use of interrogative pronouns/"wh" words. 3) the use of subject-verb inversion, as well as the use of auxiliary verbs for the first time.


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