Levine et al

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  • Levine et al (2001)
    • Aims
      • to see if tendency to help was stable across different situations
      • To see is helping of strangers varies across different cultures
      • Identify characteristics of communities that are more or less likely to help
    • Method
      • To avoid gender effects, all confederates were male
      • All cities had over 200,000 people
      • Asking for change situation and post situation ran into issues such as some countries having a lack of small change so the data would be biased.
      • Dropped pen: Pre-set pace, walked towards someone walking the opposite way, reach into pocket and 'drop' his pen.
      • Hurt leg: Heavy limp and a leg brace, accidentally drop magazines and fail to pick them up.
      • Blind person: Dark glasses and white cane, just before the light turned green they would approach the corner and wait until someone offered to help
      • Tests conducted during main business hours on clear days during the summer
    • Results
      • RIo de Janeiro - Brazil: over 90% helping index
      • New York: 45% helping index
      • Population size of city.
      • Purchasing power parity (PPP)
      • Where a country could be placed on a scale from 1-10 from collectivist to individualist.
      • Pace of life
    • Conclusions
      • Overall levels of helping across cultures are inversely related to a country's economic productivity
      • Countries with a tradition of simpatia are more helpful than others

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