Craik & Tulving - Levels of Processing





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  • Levels of Processing study - Craik & Tulving 1975
    • Aim
      • To test the Levels of Processing theory and see whether the depth of processing affects recall
    • Procedure
      • 24 participants
      • Shown 60 words via tachistoscope
      • Asked a series of questions about words
        • Required either structural, phonetic or semantic processing
          • Same amount of each
      • Asked to recognise the 60 words from a list of 180 including 120 new words
    • Results
      • Percentage of words recognised for each level of processing
      • 17% structural
      • 36% phonetic
      • 65% semantic
    • Evaluation
      • Words flashed up very quickly which could be missed by blinking
        • This would affect results
      • Standardised procedure so easily replicated - reliable (lab experiment)
      • Morris et al. found more words were recalled when processed phonetically
      • Small sample - may not be representative
        • Do not know anything about participants so could be large amount of individual differences
      • Too simplistic - doesn't show any biological processes of the brain
      • 24 participants were all university students so can be generalised to similar
      • Participants were not told they would have to recall words to ensure they didn't start rehearsing them
        • Avoided demand characteristics
      • Artificial - lab experiment - is this really how our memory works?
      • Doesn't apply to all types of learning e.g. flashbulb memories
      • Builds upon multi-store model


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