Levels of Processing Model

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  • Levels of Processing
    • Craik and Lockhart
      • Process over structure is important
      • STM Rehearsal is simplified
        • Actually two types, which are important for retention
          • Maintenance
            • Simple repetition
          • Elaborative
            • Analysing meaning or rehearsed stimuli
              • Deeper processing, more durable memory trace
    • Shallow Processing
      • Visual and Structural Processing
        • Physical Properties, what things look like
          • EG. Capital or Lower case letters
        • Information most likely to be forgotten
    • Intermediate Processing
      • Acoustic and Phonetic Processing
        • Auditory features, what things sound like
          • EG. Whether to words rhyme
    • Deep Processing
      • Semantic Processing
        • What things mean and connections they have
          • EG. Does a certain word fit into a sentence
      • Information most likely to be remembered
    • Craik and Tulving Study
      • Participants shown a list of word, asked a question about each
        • Shallow - Is the word lower case or capital?
        • Intermediate - Does the word rhyme?
        • Deep - Does the word fit in the sentence?
      • After questions, Ps had to recall words
        • Deeply processed words remembered best
        • Shallow recall was the worst

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