Levels of Processing

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  • Created by: Em
  • Created on: 27-03-16 17:06
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  • Levels of Processing Model of Memory
    • Description
      • Craik and Lockhart proposed that there are 2 types of rehearsal
        • Maintenance- rehearsing information in order to preserve it for a short time
        • Elaborative- deeper consideration of the information, often by giving it meaning and is more likely to result in a more durable memory
      • Craik and Lockhart proposed that if the information is distinctive, relevant or requires time or effort to process, it is likely to be processed at a deer level than if it is effortless and meaningless
      • Craik and Tulving conducted a lab exp to determine whether recall is affected by the way information is processed
        • 3 types of questions were asked that determined how deeply the word was processed
          • Structural, phonetic, semantic
            • Words processed at a semantic level were more likely to be recalled
    • Evaluation
      • The model has been criticised for being too descriptive rather than explaining how memory works
        • Does not account for all learning. Imagery and emotionality can also leave longstanding memories
        • Morris et al (1977) found that participants recalled more words that were phonetically processed than semantically
          • This provides direct evidence against the model
      • Applications are wide- been used to enhance learning and revision and also applied to learning language and reading
        • Accounts for the diversity of memories stored.
          • The MSM assumes anything remembered for longer than a minute is held in the LTM but does not account for the fact that some memories are strong and some weak
            • LOP explains the difference in memory durability by referring to the depth of processing


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