Learning Theories

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  • Learning Theories
    • Classical Conditioning - Pavlov
      • Learning that occurs from continually pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that produces a response
      • Unconditioned stimulus
        • the stimulus that produces the automatic response
      • Unconditioned response
        • the reflex that occurs automatically in response to the US
      • Conditioned stimulus
        • the neutral stimulus that gradually acquires the ability to produce the reflexive response after repeatedly being paired with the US
      • Conditioned response
        • The reflexive response that graudally occurs in response to the CS
    • Behaviourism- Watson
      • 1. observation of overt behaviour is the only way to evaluate personality
      • 2. personality is the sum of observable behaviour
      • 3. personality is determined by environmental factors
      • Little Albert Study
        • rat was NS, became CS and created CR
    • Operant Conditioning - Skinner
      • The consequences of a response affect the probability of a response  being repeated
      • based on Thorndike's (1905) law of effect, but introduced reinforcement
      • Three types of response/operant can follow behaviour: neutral, reinforcers, punishers
      • Reinforcement = encourages
      • Punishment = discourages
      • Positive = adding stimulus
      • Negative = removing stimulus
    • Can CC and OC explain personality development?
      • suggest personality is merely the product of learned behaviours 
      • Skinner suggests that the term “personality” is redundant
      • Ignores drives, needs, emotions and cognitions


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