Learning Styles

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  • Learning Styles
    • Learning theories
      • Behaviourist
        • Classical conditioning
        • Operant conditioning
        • Social learning
        • Permanent change in behaviour due to experience
        • Associative learning in different situations - situationism
      • Cognitive theories
        • Assimilation to schema
          • Accretion - gradual increase in information
          • Tuning - adjusting concepts we already possess
          • Restructuring- reorganise existing knowledge
        • Fitts (1962) 3 stage model
          • 1. Cognitive - movements are slow and considerable cognitive activity is required
            • Controlled consciously
          • 2. Associative - movements are more fluid and less cognitive activity is required
            • Some parts controlled consciously and automatically
          • 3. Autonomous - movements are accurate and little or no cognitive activity is required
            • Largely controlled automatically
        • Anderson 's 3 stage model
          • Declarative knowledge, knowledge compilation and procedural knowledge
        • Gagne's learning hierarchy
          • 7 types of learning capabilities
            • Stimulus response connections and chains of associations to rules and problem solving
    • Criticisms and implications
      • No scientific justification for fixed categories such as 'divergers' (Coffield)
      • Independent testings of the learning styles needed
      • Lead to unschooling
      • Restricts brain interconnectivity
    • Individual differences in learning
      • Pask's holists and serialists
        • Holists - learn by approaching task as a whole
          • Style A - holistic, field dependent, divergent
            • Field dependent - rely on information from outer world
            • Divergent - produce multiple solutions to an idea
        • Serialists - learn by breaking task down into parts
          • Style B - serialistic, field independent, convergent
      • VAK learning
        • Visual e.g. pictures
        • Auditory e.g. listening
        • Kinaesthetic e.g. movements
      • Kolb's experiential  learning
        • Gather information by concrete experience (CE) - feeling, or abstract conceptualisation (AC) - thinking(
          • Process that information through reflective observation (RO) - watching, or active experimentation (AE) - doing
        • Divergers are CE/RO
          • Accommodators are CE/AE
            • Assimilators are AC/RO
              • Convergers are AC/AE
      • Honey and mumford's manual of learning styles
        • Gather information by doing and watching
        • Process information by thinking and feeling

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