Social Learning Theory

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  • Learning Approach- Social Learning
    • Assumptions
      • Bandar- Behaviour learned from experience
      • Learn through observation + imitation
      • Learning occur directly + Indirectly
    • Vicarious Reinforcement
      • Indirect learning, observe behaviour of others
      • Only imitate if behaviours rewarded
      • Observe consequences
    • Role of Meditational Processes
      • bridge between traditional learning theory + cognitive approach
      • Mental factors mediate learning process to determine whether new response is learnt
      • 2) Retention- how well behaviours remembered
      • 4 Meditational Processes:
      • 1) Attention- extent behaviour noticed
      • 3) Motor reproduction-ability of observers to perform behaviour
      • 4) Motivation- perform behaviour based on consequence
    • Identification
      • Imitate behaviour of people they identify with- Modelling
      • Role model possesses similar characteristic to observer
    • Bandura (1961)
      • Recorded behaviour of children who watched adult behave aggressively to a bobo doll
      • children behaved aggressively towards doll when saw adult behave aggressively than non-egressive group
    • Bandura + Walters (1963)- videos to children where adult behaved aggressively towards bobo doll
      • 1) Adult Praised- Children most aggressive
      • 2) Adult punished- children least aggressive
      • 3) Control aggression no consequence- children middle
  • Evaluation
    • Emphasis importance of cognitive factors in learning
      • Neither CC or OC offer a comprehensive account of human learning alone because cognitive factors are committed
      • SLT provides more complete explanation of human learning than behaviourst approach, recognise role of meditational processes
    • SLT can account for cultural differences in behaviour
      • SL principles account for how children learn from people around them- explains  how cultural norms transmitted
      • Explains how children understand gender roles by imitation
      • Biological approach only explains universal behaviours
    • SLT less deterministic than behaviourist
      • Bandura reciprocal determinism- influenced by our environment, we exert influence through behaviour we choose to do
      • Element of free will- more realistic than behaviourist approach recognises we shape our enviroment
    • SLT relies too heavily on evidence from lab studies
      • Demand Characteristicse.g main purpose of bobo doll was to hit, behaved  how they thought was expected
      • Tell us little about how children learn aggression in normal life
    • SLT undermines influence of biological factors
      • Found boys showed more aggression than girls- regardless of experimental condition
      • Explained by more testosterone in males causes aggression
      • Bandura underplayed important influence of biological factors on social learning


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