Learning

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  • Created by: 11pyoung
  • Created on: 19-03-16 15:05
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  • Learning
    • Types
      • Operant
        • Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement
        • Law of Effect
          • Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated, those that are punished are not
            • Punishment
              • A stimulus that weakens  behaviour because it is unpleasant.
                • Operant
                  • Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement
                  • Law of Effect
                    • Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated, those that are punished are not
                      • Punishment
                        • A stimulus that weakens  behaviour because it is unpleasant.
                    • Reinforcement
                      • A consequence of behaviour  that encourages or strengthens a behaviour.
                      • Positive reinforcement
                        • A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood  that a behaviour or action will be repeated.
                      • Negative reinforcement
                        • When an unpleasant experience  is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases likelihood of repetition of behaviour.
          • Reinforcement
            • A consequence of behaviour  that encourages or strengthens a behaviour.
            • Positive reinforcement
              • A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood  that a behaviour or action will be repeated.
            • Negative reinforcement
              • When an unpleasant experience  is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases likelihood of repetition of behaviour.
        • Classical
          • A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus.
          • UCS
            • The stimulus that produce a reflex response
          • UCR
            • The reflex response  to an UCS
          • CS
            • A new stimulus presented with the UCS
          • CR
            • The response that is learnt; it now occurs when the CS is presented
          • Extinction
            • Spontaneous recovery
              • A CR that has disappeared  suddenly appears again
            • A CR dies out
          • Spontaneous recovery
            • A CR that has disappeared  suddenly appears again
          • Generalisation
            • The CR is produced when a similar  stimulus to the original CS is presented
          • Discimination
            • The CR is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented
          • Applications
            • Advertising
            • Treatment of phobias
              • Flooding
                • A treatment for phobias that involves the immediate exposure of the person to the feared object, activity or event until there is no fear response
                • Ethical implications
                  • Loss of right to withdraw
                  • Psychological harm
              • Systematic disensitisation
                • A treatment  for phobias  in which the person is taught to relax
                • Hierarchy of fears
                  • A series of feared events ranked from least frightening to most frightening
      • Definition
        • A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience.

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