Laos- LIDC

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  • Laos- Thailand LIDC
    • Laos is landlocked- suffer in trade and relations with other countries, 73% of people are employed in agriculture, new member of ASEAN
    • patterns of emigration and immigration
      • in 2013, 1.29 million emigrated abroad- mainly to Thailand
      • 20,000 immigants live in laos, as it is landlocked there aren't many opportunities
    • Emigration to Thailand
      • push: farming doesn't make much money, lack of other jobs in rural areas, insufficient land for farming- droughts lead to food insecurity
      • pull: other people have been successful who have returned home, there's a higher minimum wage-300 baht, migrant remittances are the main source of income, Thailand has a need for unskilled workers as they have a fast growing economy.
      • migration made easier- familiarity with Thai culture and language, improved access across Mekong, member of ASEAN
    • migration policies
      • Laos is a source country for human trafficking, 36% were under 15- increasing number of entrants into work force. vulnerability of young migrants to forced labour and sex exploitation in Thailand is a concern for governments and NGOs.
      • government policies have been ineffective- many young migrants to not receive the required passport.
        • Loa PDR ministry of labour and social welfare are working in co operation with  IOM, UN strategies and NGOs to implement anti trafficking strategy
          • 3 aims- prevention: awareness campaigns, education, child protection. Protection: reintegration of returning migrants and shelters for women who may need it. Prosecution: investigation of trafficking networks.
      • Subject to laws of ASEAN on migration
    • interdependence with countries linked to Laos by migration
      • Laos- Thailand migration corridor is dominated by outward flow of unskilled workers- contribute to Thai economy in construction, agriculture and factory work; remittances assist development in Laos
      • Signed agreements to build rail links between Thailand and Vietnam- also high speed rail link to china- open Laos up to development
      • Laos to Thailand- completion of the friendship bridge has help strengthen communication and trade - Thailand is closest access to sea for Laos
    • opportunities
      • Migration corridor between Laos and Thailand is largest within ASEAN, helped to stimulate political and economic co operation in terms of trade, investment and security
      • political stability is improving between Laos, Thailand a vietnam
      • migrant remittances are very important to Laos- 22% of families live bellow poverty line- impact of money ranges from buying domestic appliances to farming machinery
    • Challenges
      • most economic migrants are under 18 and low skilled- vulnerable to human trafficking and forced labour. Laos gov policy has been difficult to implement relies on governance of other organisations
      • loss of skilled labour e.g. mechanics to Thailand- set to increase

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