Language Change

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  • Language Change
    • Lexical Change
      • Coinage - creation of new words
      • Neologisms - new words themselves
      • Borrowing - borrow words from other languages. normally food or objects e.g. spaghetti from italy.
      • Scientific progress - advances in medicine, science and technology cause new words
      • Affxation - prefixes or suffixs added to words
      • Compounding - combining two words together to create one. e.g. hand and bag
      • Blending - two seperate words merged together
      • Conversion - new words created when exisring word changes class, spelling doesn't change onlt the function
      • Clipping - drop sylabbles to make word shorter e.g. intro
      • Initialism - first leter stands for words e.g. FBI
      • Acronyms - initial letters combines to ceate new word
      • Back -formation - occurs when word been added by suffix e.g. baby-sitter
      • Obselete - words no longer used
      • Archaic - words not used in modern English
      • Orthography - spelling of words
    • Semantc Change
      • when word change meaning
      • slang and colloquialisms used
      • Amelioration - word develops positive meaning e.g. sick
      • Pejoration - word develops negative meaning
      • Metaphor - descrive things as if actually something else
      • Metonymy - word associated with objects e.g. cash now means money but meant moneybox
      • Idiom - sayings that dont make sense e.g. its raining cats and dogs
      • Eupemism - alternative words used to avoid offending someone
      • Cliche - if idioms used a lot called cliches - overused phrases


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