A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE - Language Change Lexical

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  • Language Change
    • Latinate Lexis
      • Roman Empire Collapsed.
        • Scholars rediscovered the Roman cultures.
          • Renaissance. The Latin languages were used by these scholars as they travelled around Europe.
      • Affixes
        • 'aqua' > aquatic
      • French, Italian, Spanish, Portugese
    • Borrowings
      • French
        • Elegant Words
        • Connotations of refinement and romance.
        • Different stress sykabkes with softer sounds e.g. miracle, cliché
      • Latin
        • Were used as part of the French Language before English
      • Greek
        • More Specialist e.g 'grammar' 'logic' 'rhetoric'
    • Obsolescence and Archaism
      • Obsolete: a word no longer understood e.g 'wight' - person
      • Archaic: dated but understood e.g 'frocks'
      • Semantic Change
        • Language change reflects social change e.g new technogy, laws, wars, changes in attitudes.
        • Types:
          • Extension: (broadening)
            • a word widens in meaning e.g branding 'hoover' now refers to all vacuum cleaners
          • Narrowing
            • A word becomes more specialised in meaning e.g. all food used to be called meat
          • Figurative: (metaphor)
            • a word shifts meaning based on likeness to another object e.g. a crane was named after the bird with the long neck
          • Amelioration
            • negative connotations lessen e.g. 'wicked' now means cool
          • Pejoration
            • A word develops a sense of disapproval e.g. cowboy now indicates dishonesty and incompetence
    • Nelologisms
      • Abbreviation
        • A new word formed by shortening an existing one e.g. 'ad' instead of advertisement
      • Acronym
        • A new word formed from inital letter of each word in a group. Pronounced as a single word e.g 'nato' 'aids'
      • Affixing
        • They show negation, time, size or degree.
          • English uses a lot of Greek and Latin elements as affixes. e.g. 'auto' - self
        • Adding prefixes and suffixes (occassionally infixes) to existing words
      • Back-formation
        • A form of abbreviation in which a word (usually a noun) is shortened by an removing the affix to form a word of another type (usually a verb) e.g. 'donate' > 'donation'
      • Blending
        • Parts of two words are blended together. Usually beginning / end. e.g. motor + hotel = 'motel'
      • Conversion/ functional shift
        • Words of one lexical category (e.g the adjective 'green') is changed to another (e.g. the noun 'green' as in golf)
        • Verbification: (changing a noun into a verb) e.g. 'google it'
      • Coinage
        • The creation of new words not derived from any others e.g. 'naff' , 'gadget' 'snazzy'
      • Compounding
        • Words that are combined to form a new or larger word or expression e.g. 'laptop' 'runway' 'earthquake'
      • Initialism
        • Not technically a word. First letters of a number of words are joined. Cannot be pronounced as a word e.g. 'BBC'
  • Conversion/ functional shift
    • Words of one lexical category (e.g the adjective 'green') is changed to another (e.g. the noun 'green' as in golf)
    • Verbification: (changing a noun into a verb) e.g. 'google it'

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