Language and Power


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  • Created by: flick97x
  • Created on: 09-12-14 16:03
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  • Language and Power
    • Ideology
      • Values and beliefs and world view that lie behind a speech or writing. Can be explicit or implicit.
    • Power symmetry (equal encounters)
      • Where participants have equal power
    • Power asymmetry (unequal encounters)
      • Participants have different levels of power
    • Influential Power
      • influencing through persuasion
    • Power behind discourse
      • refers to the background influences and structures that determine who has power eg. management
    • Instrumental Power
      • ways that inviduals or groups enforce and maintain power through eg.rules
      • Enforce authority
    • Grice's Maxims
      • To maintain cooperation, people must adhere to four maxims.
        • Quantity: appropriate amount of detail
        • Quality: truth and do not knowingly mislead
        • Relevance: keep to topic
        • Manner: avoid ambiguity
    • Face Act Theory
      • Positive Politeness:
        • eg How are you little man?
      • Negative Politeness:
        • eg its awfully cold in here
      • Negative face threat:
        • eg Shut that window?
      • Positive face threat:
        • eg. You look horrible
      • Face is someones self esteem or emotional needs. Neg/Pos politeness mitigates a threat/avoids it. Positive is something personal and to do with you, like looks etc whereas negative is usually asking you to do something you dont want to.
      • Mitigate a threat with politeness.
    • Synthetic Personalisation
      • the way in which advertising and other forms of communication use personalised language such as the second person (you)
        • "We are so grateful to you" these are usually found in advertisments or charities
    • Imperative
      • Command. These are usually found in rules. People with power could use these. Power shown if people followed them.
        • eg Get out!
    • Bald on record
      • When you say something to the point. No hidden meanings
        • eg Get out! (Also a negative face threat)
    • Off record
      • When you insinuate rather than be direct.
        • eg Are you really goint to wear that?
    • Opt-out
      • When you avoid the  situation completely.
        • eg What is that? Oh how are you?
    • Political Power
      • power held by those with backing of the law.
    • Personal Power
      • power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisation.
        • Comes more into context with groups of friends
    • Social group power
      • Power held by being a member of a particular group
    • Epistemic modality
      • constructions that express degrees of possibilities, probability or certainty
        • eg shall, will
    • Deontic modality
      • constructions that express degrees of necessity and obligation


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