Language and Gender theories

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  • LANGUAGE & GENDER THEORIES
    • DEBORAH TANNEN
      • STATUS V. SUPPORT
        • Men seek to achieve the upper hand
        • Women try and gain conformation
      • INDEPENDANCE V. INTIMACY
        • Men focus more on independance
        • Women find it difficult to preserve intimacy - think more in terms of closeness
      • ADVICE V, UNDERSTANDING
        • To men, a complaint is a challenge to find a solution
      • INFORMATION V. FEELINGS
        • Giving information and brevity of speech are considered of less values than sharing emotions and elaboration
      • ORDER V. PROPOSALS
        • Women often try to suggest the actions of other indirectly
        • Men prefer to hear a direct imperative rather than a suggestion
      • CONFLICT V. COMPROMISE
        • Some women refuse to oppose the will of others openly
        • Men will resist vocally while women by appear to accede but complain afterwards
    • PAMELA FISHMAN
      • Conversation between two sexes sometimes fails because of how men respond or don't respond
    • ROBIN LAKOFF (what women are more likely to do)
      • Use hedges 'sort of', 'kind of'
      • Use super-polite forms e.g. 'would you mind...' 'I'd appreciate it if...'
      • Use tag questions
      • Use empty adjectives
      • Use direct quotations
      • Question intonation in declarative statements - raise pitch at end of a declarative so it functions as an interrogative
      • Speak less frequently
      • Overuse qualifiers 'I think that...'
      • Apologise more
      • Avoid swearing
      • Use indirect commands and requests
      • Use more intensifiers
      • Lack a sense of humour
    • ZIMMERMAN & WEST
      • Men are more likely to interrupt than women
    • DEBORAH CAMERON
      • women have been instructed in the proper ways of talking, just as they have been instructed in the proper ways of dressing
    • GEOFFREY BEATTIE
      • Men and women interrupt with more or less equal frequency
    • PETER TRUDGILL
      • Women are more likely and men are less likely to use prestige pronunciation of certain speech sounds
    • JENNIFER COATES
      • Said that all-woman conversations fit into a certain category
      • HOUSE TALK
        • Exchange of information and resources connected with the female role as an occupation
      • SCANDAL
        • Judging of the behaviour of others (women in particular)
      • BITCHING
        • Overt expression of women's anger at their restricted role and inferior status
      • CHATTING
        • Most intimate form of gossip

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