Language Acquisition - learning to write

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  • Language Acquisition - learning to write
    • Barclay (1996) outlined 7 stages of writing development
      • Stage 1 - Scribbling - random marks on the page, not related to letters or words. Learning skill of holding pencil - prepares them for writing
      • Stage 2 - Mock Handwriting - practise drawing shapes on paper, still cant tell what it is. emergent writing - attempt to write letters
      • Stage 3 - Mock letters - children produce random letters, no awareness of spacing or matching sounds with symbols
      • Stage 4 - Conventional  letters - start matching sounds with symbols, writing letters which match sound, unlikely to be spaced out, start using initial consonants to represent words e.g. h for horse
      • Stage 5 - Invented spelling - most words spelled phonetically, some simple words spelled correctly
      • Stage 6 - Appropriate spelling - sentences become more complex as child more aware of standard spelling patterns, wiring more legible
      • Stage 7 - Correct spelling - most words spelt correctly, older children started to join up writing
    • Kroll (1981) outlined 4 stages of writing development
      • Stage 1 - the preparatory stage - from 18 months - children develop motor skills needed for writing, learn basics of spelling system
      • Stage 2 - the consolidation stage - 6-8 years - children write in same way as speak, use lots of colloquialisms, short declarative statements, familiar conjunctions 'and', not yet be able to finish off a sentence, begin to express ideas in form of sentences, without punctuation
      • Stage 3 - the differentiation stage - age 8 -mid teens - children become aware of difference between conventions of spoken and written language, understand different genres e.g. letters and stories, structure work using guides and frameworks, more complex grammar and sentence structures, punctuation more accurate and consistent.
      • Stage 4 - the integration stage - mid teens upwards - writing more accurate, wider vocabulary, accurate spelling, understand style and change according to audience and purpose, narrative and descriptive skills improved, personal writing style, continue to adulthood

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