Language Diversity- Language and Gender

  • Created by: Natalie
  • Created on: 09-03-19 19:03
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  • Language Diversity- Language and Gender
    • Key Terminology
      • Marking: identifying an item as different from the norm
      • Manterrupting: unnecessary interruption of a woman by a man.
      • Mansplaining: when a man explains something to a woman in a patronising way
        • Often begins with a man completely disregarding a woman's opinion by interrupting her mid-sentence.
      • Genderlect: the specific ways men and women use language.
      • Androcentric: focused or biased towards men.
      • Communities of Practice: a group of people who come together for the purpose of a shared activity
      • Social network theory: the study of how people in organisations and groups interact with each other.
    • Deficit Theory
      • The belief that the language used by women is inferior to that used by men.
      • Otto Jesperson
        • 1922
        • stated "the vocabulary of a woman as a rule is much less extensive than that of a man"
        • Women's role in 1922 was caring for children, cooking, sewing, cleaning
          • Working at home
      • Robin Lakoff
        • 1970s
        • believes that language is fundamental to gender inequality
        • Shows specific features in women's speech
        • Features shown in womans speech
          • uncertainty
          • tag questions
          • hedging
        • But it is based on her own observations NOT scientific research.
    • Dominance Model
      • The belief that the language difference between men and women can be explained by the hierarchical dominance of men in society
      • Zimmerman and West
        • 1975
        • College campus study
        • Found men were responsible for 96% of interruptions in conversations between men and women
        • Only recorded 31 conversations
        • Speakers were white, middle class between 20 and 35 years old.
      • Dale Spender
        • 1980
        • argument is that in a patriarchal societies, men control language and it works in their favour
      • Geoffrey Beattie
        • 1982
        • Recorded 10 hours of tutorial discussions
        • Found men and women interrupted equally
        • Isn't as quoted as Zimmerman and West.
      • O'Barr and Atkins
        • 1980
        • powerless language
        • found language that Lakoff associated with women was shown by both genders when they were in a powerless situation
          • courtroom situation
    • Difference Theory
      • The belief that men and women have innate differences in the style and function of their speech and writing.
      • Deborah Tannen
        • 1990
        • Men and women are socialised differently
        • Differences are because men and women want different things out of their conversations
        • Women tend to overlap; whereas men speak one at a time.
      • Divided up the differences between male and female speech styles into 6 contrasts
        • Conflict vs compromise
        • Orders vs proposals
        • Independence vs Intimacy
        • Status vs support
        • Information vs feelings
        • Advice vs understanding
    • Sample Exam Question: Evaluate the idea that interactions between men and women are characterised by miscommunication

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