Language Change Dates Unfinished

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  • Language Change Dates
    • 18TH CENTURY
      • Jonathan Swift
        • Writer
        • Prescriptivist
        • Language should be fixed forever and protected from the ravages of fashion and social trends
        • Didn't like contractions
      • The long S
        • faded out of fashion towards end of century
          • didn't need two graphemes for one phoneme
        • didn't need two graphemes for one phoneme
        • May still be used in writing later on
      • Johnson's dictionary 1755
      • Robert Lowth and other prescriptivists
        • 'They' and 'them' are not to be used as singular pronouns - should use he and him
        • The infinitive should not be split e.g. to boldly go
        • Double negatives are really affirmatives
        • 'Different' should be immediately followed by 'from' - not 'to or 'than'
        • Sentences shouldn't end in prepositions
        • 'Who' should be inflected to form 'whom' when it is the object of a sentence
        • Viewed Latin as the ideal language
      • Media
        • Between 1690 and 1780, number of newspapers printed annually in England rose from less than a million to 14 million
        • Was alot more formal as only the well-educated could read and only the wealthy could afford an education
        • Seen as prestigious - used overt prestige to sound more sophisticated
    • 19TH CENTURY
      • Compulsory Education Act 1870
        • More people learning how to read and write
      • Media
        • Still largely formal and prestigious
    • 20TH CENTURY
      • Media
        • BBC established in 1922 - used RP until around the 1970s
        • became more informal and more like conversation - Norman Fairclough synthetic personalisation


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