Language Change

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  • Language Change
    • Influences
      • Historical Events
        • War
        • Disease
        • Invasions
        • Political Changes
        • Industrial Changes
        • Technological Advances
        • Education
          • Social Factors
            • Migration
            • Social Classes
            • Gender
            • Occupation
            • Technological Advances
            • Fashion
            • Political Correctness
        • Fashion
      • Social Factors
        • Migration
        • Social Classes
        • Gender
        • Occupation
        • Political Correctness
      • Ease of articulation
        • Omission
        • Assimilation
    • Semantic Change
      • Narrowing
      • Broadening
      • Amelioration
      • Semantic Shift
      • Pejoration
    • Phonetic Change
      • Uptalk
        • Using a rising intonation at thge end of an utterance when not asking a question
        • An influence of Austrailian television shows
      • Great Vowel Shift
    • Theories
      • Halliday
        • Functional Theory
          • 'Language changes due to the needs of the user'
            • Mainly due to technological advances
            • Makes other lexis obsolete
      • Giles
        • Accomodation Theory
          • 'High prestige and complex words have become archaic due to the informalisation of our language
            • Writers are downwardly converging towards a simpler lexicon
              • Because of wider readership as well as a reaction to the more informal lexis used today
      • Substratum Theory
        • 'Language changes due to contact'
          • Used to be invasions, but now mainly due to migration and travel
      • Aitchison
        • 'Crumbling castles, damp spoons and infectious diseases'
          • 'Language is neither progressing nor decaying'
            • Instead it is evolving into a form more suited to efficiency of use
      • Trudgill
        • 'Language continues to change and develop regardless of our feelings or attitudes towards it'
          • Change is neither good nor bad
          • It's an inevitable process required to continue to decribe and explain the social changes around us
          • Language must and will change to meet the needs of the users
    • Possible Reasons for Language Change
      • Innovations
        • Speakers may deliberately innovate eg lexis
      • Borrowing
        • Addition of new lexis
        • Find new ways of describing the world as it grows
        • Globalisation
      • Accidental Innovation
        • Pronunciation
        • Inflections
        • Lexical Choices
        • People Copy
      • Mistakes
        • There is a potential for not reproducing (old) material exactly
        • Pre C18th
          • No dictionaries
    • Lexical Expansion
      • How?
        • Borrowing
          • Latinate Borrowing
        • Coinage
        • Affixation
          • Prefixation
    • Archaism and Obsoletism
      • Archaic
        • When lexis has fallen out of common useage
        • Seems old fashioned
        • May still be present in dictionaries
      • Obsolete
        • Beyond being archaic
        • Not used at all anymore
        • Not found in contemporary dictionaries

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