English Language And Power

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  • Language and Power
    • Influential Power
      • It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, with obvious force.
      • Fairclough
      • Persuasive
    • Instrumental Power
      • explicit power of the sort imposed by the state
      • laws and conventions
      • Gives explicit idea of consequence
    • Synthetic Pers.
      • Vastly demonstrated throughout the use of 2nd person personal pronouns
        • These are ambiguous - they can be seen to be addressing both a large audience or an individual person
      • Fairclough
      • Aided by use of members resources - knowledge of the recipient that the producer already has
      • Process of addressing mass audiences as if they were individuals through inclusive language usage
    • Register/Tenor of Discourse
      • Distance
        • The way in which the producer of the text positions the reader closer to/further from them. A reduced distance indicates a lower register, increased distance equals a higher register
      • Politeness
        • How polite a text is. Often indicated by politeness markers and acknowledgement of the reader. Lowers register.
      • Orientation
        • A text can either have a social orientation (lowers register) or a message register (heightens register)
      • Formality
        • How formal a text is. Often shown through use of standard English and polysyllabic lexis. helps to establish asymmetric power. Heightens register
      • Split into 4 separate sections which can either heighten/lower the register of a text
    • Face Theory
      • Brown and Levison
      • Negative Face
        • Our need and want to be left alone and not bothered by other people
      • Positive Face
        • Our need to be liked by other people.
    • Political Power
      • That held by politicians, the police and those working in law courts.
      • Wareing
    • Positional Power
      • Wareing
      • Power held as a result of their occupation or role
    • Social Power
      • Wareing
      • Power held as a result of social variables such as class, gender and age
    • Asymmetric Power
      • A marked difference in the power status of individuals involved in the discourse
        • (One person having a higher status than another)
    • Accommodation Theory
      • Convergence
      • Divergence
        • When someone wishes to not be associated with a particular group their language stylistics may attempt to be completely opposite of them.
    • Institutional Power
      • Fairclough
      • The power wielded by entities like governments, churches, and corporations to control people and direct their behavior through the use of rewards and punishments
    • Power and Discourse
      • Power within the discourse
        • The power that a producer demonstrates through a text and the way they write.
      • Power behind the discourse
        • The power a producer has before they even write anything - usually demonstrated through use of logos and official titles


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